Falckenberg, Hermann Lotze (Stuttgart, 1901); Henry Jones, A Critical Account of the Philosophy of Lotze (Glasgow, 1895); Paul Lange, Die Lehre vom Instincte bei Lotze and Darwin (Berlin, 1896); A.
Empedocles tries to explain the genesis of organic beings, and, according to Lange, anticipates the idea of Darwin that adaptations abound, because it is their nature to perpetuate themselves.
In this work, the product, according to Lange, of a fanatical enthusiasm for humanity, he sought to demonstrate the indestructibility of matter and force, and the finality of physical force.
One of the former city gates (1615) remains, and there are a town hall, communal buildings (1863), court-house, weigh-house, synagogue and churches of various denominations, in one of which is the tomb of the naval hero of the 16th century, Lange, or Groote Pier (Long or Great Peter).
(new edition, Stuttgart, 1893, &c.); Lange, Romische Alterthumer, i.
Lange, Mills Ansichten fiber die soziale Frage (Duisburg, 1866); Littre, A.
JOHANN PETER LANGE (1802-1884), German Protestant theologian, was of peasant origin and was born at Sonneborn near Elberfeld on the Toth of April 1802.
Lange has been called the poetical theologian par excellence: " It has been said of him that his thoughts succeed each other in such rapid and agitated waves that all calm reflection and all rational distinction become, in a manner, drowned" (F.
He worked in conjunction with Luther's friend, John Lange, and was opposed by the Franciscans under Conrad Kling.
C. Bissell in Lange-Schaff (1860); W.
Lange, " Conspectus florae Groenlandicae," Meddelelser om Gronland, part iii.
Other views of the original aerarii are that they were: - artisans and freedmen (Niebuhr); inhabitants of towns united with Rome by a hospitium publicum, who had become domiciled on Roman territory (Lange); only a class of degraded citizens, including neither the cives sine sufJragio nor the artisans (Madvig); identical with the capite censi of the Servian constitution (Belot, Greenidge).
P. Lange, Bernhard Weiss and F.
See Rothe, Aus der Geschichte der Stadi Zeitz (Zeitz, 1876); and Lange, Chronik des Bisthums Naumburg (Naumburg, 1891).
Vaihinger, Hartmann, Diihring and Lange (1876).
A good German translation, but without note or comment, was brought out by Friedrich Lange at Berlin in 181 1.
On leaving Luneburg he spent some time in Hamburg, where he became a teacher in a private school, and made the acquaintance of Nikolaus Lange (1659-1720).
Amongst his colleagues were Paul Anton (1661-1730), Joachim Breithaupt (1658-1732) and Joachim Lange (1670-1744), - men like-minded with himself.
Holm, Lange Febde (Berlin, 1884); H.
Lange, Geschichte des Materialismus (Eng.
In reducing the thing in itself to a thought he projected the neo-Kantism of Lange and Cohen.
Cohen his more important Kants Theorie der Erfahrung, which led Lange to modify his interpretation of Kant in the second edition of his own book.
Lange (q.v.) by his History of Materialism has exercised a profound influence, which is due partly to its apparent success in answering materialism by Kantian arguments, and partly to its ingenious attempt to give.
Lange to some extent modified the transcendentalism of Kant's theory of the origin of knowledge.
A priori forms, according to Kant, are contributions of the mental powers of sense, understanding, and reason; but, according to Lange, they are rooted in " the physico-psychical organization."
Lange entirely agreed with Kant that a priori forms can have no validity beyond experience when he says: " Kant is at any rate so far justified as the principle of intuition in space and time a priori is in us, and it was a service to all time that he should in this first great example, show that what we possess a priori, just because it arises out of the disposition of our mind, beyond our experience has no longer any claim to validity " (Hist.
Yes, rejoins Lange, but Kant has proved that material are merely mental phenomena; so that the more the materialist proves his case the more surely he is playing into the hands of the idealist - an answer which would be complete if it did not turn on the equivocation of the word " phenomenon," which in science means any positive fact, and not a mere appearance, much less a mental appearance, to sense and sensory experience.
Having, however, made a deduction, which is at all events consistent, that on Kantian assumptions all we know is mental phenomena, Lange proceeded to reduce the rest of Kantism to consistency.
Lange thus transmuted inconsistent Kantism into a consistent Neo-Kantism, consisting of these reformed positions: (1) we start with sensations in a priori forms; (2) all things known from these data are mental phenomena of experience; (3) everything beyond is idea, without any corresponding reality being knowable.
Its consistency, as deduced by Lange, was to reduce all use of reason, speculative and practical, to its logical use of proceeding from the assumed mental data of outer and inner sense, arranged a priori, to mental phenomena of experience, beyond which we can conceive ideas but postulate nothing.
He rightly relies on the numerous passages, neglected by Lange, in which Kant regards things in themselves as neither phenomena nor ideas, but things existing beyond both.
- When the Neo-Kantians, led by Lange, had modified Kant's hypothesis of a priori forms, and retracted Kant's admission and postulation of things in themselves beyond phenomena and ideas, and that too without proceeding further in the direction of Fichte and the noumenal idealists, there was not enough left of Kant to distinguish him essentially from Hume.
But he limits this power of mind beyond sensations to mere ideas, and like Hume, and also like Lange, holds at last that, though we may form ideas beyond sensations or phenomena, we cannot know things.
His main sympathies are with the Neo-Kantians, and especially with Lange in modifying the a priori, and in extending the power of reason beyond phenomena to an ideal world; and yet the cry of his phenomenalism is not " back to Kant," but " beyond Kant."
Wundt, in fact, agrees with Lange: that reason transcends experience of phenomena only to conceive " ideals."
Here you would expect him to stop, as the German Neo-Kantism of Lange stops, with the consistent conclusion that all we know of Nature from such data is these complexes of sensation-elements, or phenomena in the Kantian meaning.
Lange; as a retort to that writer's overbearing criticism, Lessing exposed with scathing satire Lange's errors in his popular translation of Horace.
One of the four is inhabited by the king, the second and third by the crown prince and other members of the royal family, while the fourth is occupied by the coronation and state rooms. The Ameliegade crosses the plads and, with the Bredgade, terminates at the esplanade outside the citadel, prolonged in the pleasant promenade of Lange Linie skirting the Sound.
Ewald and Thomas Lange (1829-1887).
In the criticism of art, Julius Lange (1838-1896), and later Karl Madsen, have done excellent service.
Darer (Nuremberg, 1827); again, edited by Thausing, in the Quellenschriften far Kunstgeschichte und Kunsttechnik (Vienna, 1872), but most completely in Lange and Fuhse's Diirers schriftlicher Nachlass (Halle, 1893); W.
Lange, Logische Studien (2nd ed., Leipzig, 189 4); T.
From it runs the Lange Gasse, the main street, to the Lange Markt.
3); Lange (Ztschr.
Of the numerous bridges, the most remarkable are the Schloss-briicke, built after designs by Schinkel in 1822-1824, with eight colossal figures of white marble, representing ideal stages in a warrior's life, the work of Drake, Albert Wolff and other eminent sculptors; the Kurfiirstenor Lange-briicke, built 1692-1695, and restored in 1895, with an equestrian statue of the great elector, and the Kaiser-Wilhelm-briicke (1886-1889) connecting the Lustgarten with the Kaiser-Wilhelm-strasse in the inner town.
The equestrian statue of the great elector on the Lange-briicke has been already mentioned.
Lange, Geschichte des Materialismus (Eng.trans.
See Karl Lange, Ueber Apperception (6th ed.
Lange, Friedrich Ueberweg (Berlin, 1871); M.
FRIEDRICH ALBERT LANGE (1828-1875), German philosopher and sociologist, was born on the 28th of September 1828, at Wald, near Solingen, the son of the theologian, J.