In 1872 he was appointed to the supreme command of the newly established Austrian Landwehr, to the organization of which he devoted many years of work.
German stamps were introduced from Berlin; the occupied towns were garrisoned by the Landwehr; and requisitions on a large scale were demanded, and paid for in cheques which, at the close of the war, were to be honoured by whichever side should stand in the unpleasant position of the conquered.
The revision of the whole military system was undertaken in 1910, especially as regards enrolment and promotion of officers, but, as things then stood, the term of service was twenty years (from the age of 20 to the age of 40), for all Ottoman male subjects: active service (muasaff) nine years, of which three with the colours (nizam), in the case of infantry, four in the case of cavalry and artillery; six and five respectively in the reserve (ikhtiat); Landwehr (redif) nine years; territorial (mustahfiz) two years.
This led the latter to push on without due regard to tactical precautions, and Blucher took advantage of their carelessness when at Haynau (May 26), with some twenty squadrons of Landwehr cavalry, he surprised, rode over and almost destroyed Maison's division.
The interruption of maritime intercourse, the stagnation of industry and trade, the rise in the price of the necessaries of life, the impossibility of adequately providing for the families of those - call them reservists, " landwehr," or what you will - who are torn away from their daily toil to serve in the tented field, - these are considerations that may well make us pause before we abandon a peaceful solution and appeal to brute force.
Army under the crown prince (I., V., VI.) near Breslau; the Guard' and a reserve corps of Landwehr at Berlin.
Army Corps with Kummer's Landwehr division (which arrived during the night of the 19th-loth of August) were to occupy a position to cover the rail head at Courcelles-Remilly, and the remainder were disposed in the following order: The X.
Corps and 3rd Landwehr division) were most dangerously extended, and a surprise at daybreak might have had far-reaching results.
With this object he fortified the outlying villages, and when the Germans (chiefly Landwehr) began the investment on the 3rd of November 1870, they encountered everywhere a most strenuous resistance.
The formal siege of the Perches redoubts had now been decided upon, and as an essential preliminary to further operations, Danjoutin, now isolated, was stormed by the Landwehr on the night of the 7th-8th January.
In 1813 Niebuhr's own attention was diverted from history by the uprising of the German people against Napoleon; he entered the Landwehr and ineffectually sought admission into the regular army.
From six to seven years more, the whole period of army and Landwehr service being thus nineteen years.
They are called One-Year Volunteers (Einjahrig-Freiwilligen), defray their own expenses and are the chief source of supply of reserve and Landwehr officers.
That proportion of the annual contingents which is dismissed untrained goes either to the Ersatz-Reserve or to the 1st ban of the Landsturm (the Landwehr, it will be observed, contains only men who have served with the colors).
For an offensive war, only the active army, the reserve, the Ersatz and the 1st levy of the Landwehr would be really available.
1,200,000 From 5 contingents of Landwehr (1st ban).
400,000 One-year volunteers recalled to the colors or serving as reserve and Landwehr officers ioo,ooo 2,400,000
Behind these forces there, would shortly become available for secondary operations about 460 battalions of the 1st ban Landwehr, and 200 squadrons and about 220 batteries of the reserve and Landwehr.
In addition, each would leave behind depot troops to form the nucleus on which the 2nd ban Landwehr and the Landsturm would eventually be built up. The total number of units of the three arms in all branches may be stated approximately at 2200 battalions, 780 squadrons and 950 batteries.
The minister of war is the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr and of the Hungarian Honveds, which are committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states.
Besides 10,000 men are annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12,500 to the Hungarian Honveds.
The term of service is 2 years (3 years in the cavalry) with the colours, 7 or 8 in the reserve and 2 in the Landwehr; in the case of men not drafted to the active army the same total period of service is spent in various special reserves.
The Austrian Landwehr (which retains the old designation K.K., formerly applied to the Austrian regular army) is organized in 8 divisions of varying strength, the " Royal Hungarian " Landwehr or Honveds in 7 divisions, both Austrian and Hungarian Landwehr having in addition cavalry (Uhlans and hussars) and artillery.
It is probable that a Landwehr or Honveds division will, in war, form part of each army corps except in the case of the Vienna corps, which has 3 divisions in peace.
The Landwehr and Honved would yield 219,000 infantry and 18,000 cavalry, and other reserves 223,000 men.
In Hungary this national force or honved was kept quite distinct from the ordinary army; in Austria, however (except in Dalmatia and Tirol, where there was a separate local militia), the Landwehr, as it was called, was practically organized as part of the standing army.
16,700 men were needed for the joint army, and the remainder for the Austrian and Hungarian national defence troops (Landwehr and honved).
In 1870 Berlin was practically bounded on the south by the Landwehr Canal, but it has since extended far beyond, and the Tempelhofer Feld, where military reviews are held, then practically in the country, is now surrounded by a dense belt of houses.
The Landwehr Canal, leaving the Spree near the Schlesische Tor (gate), and rejoining it at Charlottenburg, after a course of 6 m., adds not a little to the charm of the southern and western districts, being flanked by fine boulevards and crossed by many handsome bridges.
The first three cross the Spree and the last two the Landwehr Canal.
As a young man he was an officer in the Landwehr and militia, and in addition to his civil honours he was eventually raised to the rank of general.