BRIDGET, BRIGITTA, BIRGITTA, OF SWEDEN, Saint (c. 13021 373), the most celebrated saint of the northern kingdoms, was the daughter of Birger Persson, governor and lagman (provincial judge) of Uppland, and one of the richest landowners of the country.
The principal landowners, who reside in fortified houses, are all Moslems; their estates are cultivated on the metayer system.
The diet, elected for six years, consists of 24 members, of whom 4 are elected by the largest landowners, 4 by those who pay tax on incomes of £150 or more, and 16 by the other electors.
Landowners frequently cultivated their land themselves but might employ a husbandman or let it.
Interest was rarely charged on advances by the temple or wealthy landowners for pressing needs, but this may have been part of the metayer system.
On an average Italian landowners pay nearly 25% of their revenues from land in government and local land tax.
Loans on mortgage may also be granted to landowners and agricultural unions, with a view to the introduction of agricultural improvements.
The proportion of landowners is a very large one, and the prosperous condition of the Groningen farmer is attested by the style of his home, his dress and his gig.
In the college itself the voting - secret and by ballot throughout - is by majority; and since this majority consists, under the actual system, of very conservative elements (the landowners and urban delegates having 8ths of the votes), the progressive elements - however much they might preponderate in the country - would have no chance of representation at all save for the curious provision that one member at least in each government must be chosen from each of the five classes represented in the college.
The board consists of five classes of members: (I) large landed proprietors (nobles owning S90 acres and over), who sit in person; (2) delegates of the small landowners, including the clergy in their capacity of landed proprietors; (3) delegates of the wealthier townsmen; (4) delegates of the less wealthy urban classes; (5) delegates of the peasants, elected by the volosts.
The justices of the peace, who must be landowners' or (in towns) persons of moderate property, are elected by the municipal dumas in the towns, and by the zemstvos Justices in the country districts, for a term of three years.
2 The justices, though noble-landowners, are almost exclusively of very moderate means, and, though elected by the land-owning class, they are - according to M.
The three-field system of cropping a patch of land until its fertility is exhausted, and then allowing it to revert to the primeval condition, is still pursued, and both landowners and peasantry suffer from want of capital and lack of agricultural training.
The landowners are often poor, and suffer from want of capital and lack of enterprise.
Meanwhile large numbers of landowners were forced to adopt one of two alternatives.
Contemporary with Tull was Charles, a nd Viscount Townshend, a typical representative of the large landowners to whom the strides made by agriculture in the 18th century were due.
In early Attica, and even down to the time of Pericles, the landowners lived in the country.
The Hussite movement was also a democratic one, an uprising of the peasantry against the landowners at a period when a third of the soil belonged to the clergy.
It was not an equal tax falling on all landowners, but the question as to whether a certain estate was to be taxed or not was decided according to the quality of the property, and not that of the owner.
On the occasion of the Galician outbreak of 1845, when the Ruthenian peasantry massacred some hundreds of Polish landowners, an outbreak generally attributed to the machinations of the Austrian government, Wielopolski wrote his famous Lettre d'un gentilhomme polonais au prince de Metternich (Brussels, 1846), which caused a great sensation at the time, and in which he attempted to prove that the Austrian court was acting in collusion with the Russian in the affair.
(a) The large landowners, owning about 1,899 estates (of these 310 were in Latgalia), mostly Baits and gentry (" Baltic barons "), were expropriated (Land Act, Sept.
1920 (passed in order to curtail the power of Baltic landowners) a State fund was created with a view to forming new holdings and increasing the size of the minute holdings, and " in order to satisfy the requirements of economic enterprises, social and cultural institutions and to enlarge the areas of towns and villages."
Owing to the improvidence of the Hungarian landowners and the poverty of the peasants the soil of the country is also gradually passing into their hands.3 The Gipsies, according to the special census of 1893, numbered 2 74,94 0.
In royal Hungary the same object was aimed at by innumerable indictments against the richer landowners, indictments supported by false title-deeds and carried through by forged or purchased judgments of the courts.
The water is there in abundance, the land is well adapted for irrigation, but as there is a considerable rainfall, it is doubtful whether the scheme would prove remunerative, and a large section of the landowners have hitherto opposed it, as likely to waterlog the country.
First they camped gaily before Vilna, making acquaintance with the Polish landowners, preparing for reviews and being reviewed by the Emperor and other high commanders.
Various obscure rumors were always current among them: at one time a rumor that they would all be enrolled as Cossacks; at another of a new religion to which they were all to be converted; then of some proclamation of the Tsar's and of an oath to the Tsar Paul in 1797 (in connection with which it was rumored that freedom had been granted them but the landowners had stopped it), then of Peter Fedorovich's return to the throne in seven years' time, when everything would be made free and so "simple" that there would be no restrictions.
At the end of the report the general put before him for signature a paper relating to the recovery of payment from army commanders for green oats mown down by the soldiers, when landowners lodged petitions for compensation.
There were also small scratch groups of foot and horse, and groups of peasants and landowners that remained unknown.
He was as careful of the sowing and reaping of the peasants' hay and corn as of his own, and few landowners had their crops sown and harvested so early and so well, or got so good a return, as did Nicholas.