5 None but peasants - not even the noble-landowner - has a voice in the assembly of the mir.
As wealth increased the peasant-farmer gave way before the large landowner, who cultivated his property by means of slave-labour, superintended by slave-bailiffs.
In Kerry, Ireland, he was a large landowner, and became a member of the Irish privy council (1903), and in 1906 he sat on the Royal Commission dealing with congested districts.
He reformed the coinage, developed trade and commerce and introduced numerous agricultural reforms, especially on his own estates, which he was never weary of enlarging, so that on his death he was the wealthiest landowner in Denmark.
The possession of this property brought about frequent disputes with an adjoining landowner, Thomas de Grey, and, after many actions in the courts, his friends endeavoured to obtain, by a bill forced through the houses of parliament, the privileges which the law had not assigned to him (February 1774).
In the days of the decaying empire and of the chaotic German settlement, the weak freeman, the small landowner, was exposed to attack in almost every relation of life and on every side.
The poor landowner, likely to lose all that he had from one kind of oppression or another, went to the great landowner, his neighbour, whose position gave him immunity from attack or the power to prevent official abuses, and begged to be protected.
Up to this point we have seen only the small landowner and the landless man entering into these relations.
As in the last days of the Roman empire the poor landowner had found his only refuge from the exactions of the government in the protection of the senator, who could in some way obtain exemptions, so the poor Frank could escape the ruinous demands of military service only by submitting himself and his lands to the count, who did not hesitate on his side to force such submission.
Under a government too weak to preserve order, the great landowner formed his estate into a little territory which could defend itself.
Ideally regarded, feudalism covered Europe with a network of these fiefs, rising in graded ranks one above the other from the smallest, the knight's fee, at the bottom, to the king at the top, who was the supreme landowner, or who held the kingdom from God.
On his retirement he settled in Devonshire as a small landowner, and contemplated a farming life for his son Frederick, giving him a practical training to that end.
He was sent to the garrison town of Logrono, where he married the daughter of a rich landowner, Dona Jacinta Santa Cruz, who eventually survived him.
It was named by its largest landowner Col.
It follows from Quesnay's theoretic views that the one thing deserving the solicitude of the practical economist and the statesman is the increase of the net product; and he infers also what Smith afterwards affirmed, on not quite the same ground, that the interest of the landowner is "strictly and indissolubly connected with the general interest of the society."
Owing to the famine and the disturbed state of the country, which demanded his attention as a large landowner and lieutenant of King's County (from 1831), the instrument remained unused for nearly three years, but since 1848 it has been in constant use, chiefly for observations of nebulae, for which it was particularly suited on account of its immense optical power, nominally 6000.
Boris' most important domestic reform was the ukaz (1587) forbidding the peasantry to transfer themselves from one landowner to another, thus binding them to the soil.
The landowner on whom the notice is served may meet it by agreeing to sell, and the terms may then be settled by consent of the parties themselves, or by arbitration, if they decide to have recourse to that mode of adjusting the difficulty.
On the other hand, if the landowner fails within twenty-one days after receipt of the notice to treat to give the particulars which it requires, the promoters may proceed to exercise their compulsory powers and to obtain assessment of the compensation to be paid.
Carlow, Ireland, on the 2nd of August 1820, his father being the son of a small landowner in poor circumstances, but a man of more than ordinary ability.
Except, however, where made under parliamentary authority, no composition for tithes, although made between the landowner and the parson or vicar with the consent of the patron and ordinary, bound a succeeding incumbent, the statute 13 Eliz.
Tithe rent charge may also be merged in the land tithable, with the consent of the tithe commissioners and the landowner, by the legal and equitable owners of tithes in fee simple or fee tail, or persons having power to appoint the fee simple in tithes, or owners of glebes, or owners of lands and tithes settled to the same uses.
The act of 1891, has, however, altered this method of recovering tithes, and substituted another intended to shift the burden of responsibility from the occupier to the landowner, by making the latter directly and solely responsible, but giving the remedy against the land.
The landowner is made liable to pay the rent charge in spite of any contract to the contrary between him and the occupier; the rent charge if in arrear for three months is recoverable by an order of the county court, whatever its amount may be: if the land is occupied by the owner, the order is executed by the same means as those prescribed in the Tithe Acts; but if it is not, then by a receiver being appointed for the rents and profits of the land: neither landlord nor occupier is personally liable for payment; and appeal lies to the High Court on points of law; and a remission of rent charge may be claimed when its amount exceeds two-thirds of the annual value of the land.
23 sqq.) - a little treatise it may be called - enjoining on the landowner the necessity of paying special attention to his cattle, large and small; these, says the writer, are the real sources of wealth to the rural landowner.
In Kiev Pierre found some people he knew, and strangers hastened to make his acquaintance and joyfully welcomed the rich newcomer, the largest landowner of the province.
At that time while with his regiment in Poland, a Polish landowner of small means had forced him to marry his daughter.
He indicated the stud farms at which Nicholas might procure horses, recommended to him a horse dealer in the town and a landowner fourteen miles out of town who had the best horses, and promised to assist him in every way.
Immediately on leaving the governor's, Nicholas hired post horses and, taking his squadron quartermaster with him, drove at a gallop to the landowner, fourteen miles away, who had the stud.
The landowner to whom Nicholas went was a bachelor, an old cavalryman, a horse fancier, a sportsman, the possessor of some century-old brandy and some old Hungarian wine, who had a snuggery where he smoked, and who owned some splendid horses.
After dining and taking rather too much of the Hungarian wine, Nicholas-- having exchanged kisses with the landowner, with whom he was already on the friendliest terms--galloped back over abominable roads, in the brightest frame of mind, continually urging on the driver so as to be in time for the governor's party.