The lessee, or farmer, tills the soil at his own risk; usually he provides live stock, implements and capital, and has no right to compensation for ordinary improvements, nor for extraordinary improvements effected without the landlords consent.
In Latium leasehold and farming by landlords prevail, but cases of, nezzadria and of improvement farms exist.
Large landlords are usually represented by ministri, or factors, who direct agricultural operations and manage the estates, but the estate is often let to a middleman, or mercante di campagna.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
The landlords on their part organized an agrarian union to defend their interests and enrolled numbers of non-union laborers to carry on the necessary work and save the crops.
No measures had been taken to supply these voluntary crusaders with food or clothing; as harvest-time approached, the landlords commanded them to return to reap the fields, and on their refusing to do so, proceeded to maltreat their wives and families and set their armed retainers upon the half-starved multitudes.
But by laws promulgated in 1888 and 1889 the rights of police and manorial justice were transferred from the landlords to officials of the central government.
The relations of the Esths and Letts with their landlords are anything but friendly.
This act liberated the serfs from a yoke which was really terrible, even under the best landlords, and from this point of view it was obviously an immense benefit.2 But it was far from securing corresponding economic results.
Finally, in the Baltic provinces nearly all the land belongs to the German landlords, who either farm the land themselves, with hired labourers, or let it in small farms. Only one-fourth of the peasants are farmers, the remainder being mere labourers, who are emigrating in great numbers.
The forests have been sold, and only those landlords are prospering who exact rack-rents for the land without which the peasants could not live upon their allotments.
The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.
With this and perhaps some other exceptions, there are not in the Mahratta country many large landlords, nor many of the superior tenure-holders whose position relatively to that of the peasantry has caused much discussion ii: other parts of India.
They are sometimes in the position of landlords, but often they are the assignees of the land revenue, which they are entitled under special grants to collect for themselves instead of for government, paying merely a small sum to Government by way of quit-rent.
The statute of 1685, conferring on landlords a power to entail their estates, was indeed of a very different tendency in regard to its effects on agriculture.
An Act passed in 1770, which relaxed the rigour of strict entails and afforded power to landlords to grant leases and otherwise improve their estates, had a beneficial effect on Scottish agriculture.
The unlimited issues of government paper and the security afforded by these leases induced the Scottish banks to afford every facility to landlords and tenants to embark capital in the improvement of the land.
The stronger current of modern authority is in favour of the landlords and not in favour of restricting the meaning of covenants of this class.
But the modern Land Acts have readjusted the relation between landlords and tenants, while the Land Purchase Acts have aimed at abolishing those relations by enabling the tenant to become the owner of his holding.
The name was imported from Ireland, where it had been used to designate one of the Ribbon societies that devoted its energies to intimidating and maltreating process servers and the agents of landlords, and whose greatest activity was between 1835 and 1855.
40% is held in communal ownership by the peasants, 48% is owned by landlords possessing more than 270 acres each, and 31% by small owners.
In practice, it was held by the Moslem begs or beys (nobles) and agas (landlords), who let it to the peasantry.
His labours were as various as they were incessant - now guiding the councils of the league, now addressing crowded and enthusiastic meetings of his supporters in London or the large towns of England and Scotland, now invading the agricultural districts and challenging the landlords to meet him in the presence of their own farmers, to discuss the question in dispute, and now encountering the Chartists, led by Feargus O'Connor.
The Peasants' party combined with the Popular Socialist party, while the "Workers' Federation" and the "Yeomen's Union" (these being but the small landowners) formed part of the Christian Socialist governing bloc. Legally recognized parties which were not represented in the Seim were: (a) the Progressive party (Pajanga); (b) the Liberal party (known as the Santara Union); (c) " Landlords' Association" (which comprised only large landed proprietors).
As they were dependent on the protection of the landlords, the Mahommedans were docile tenants, and their competition weighed heavily on the Christians.
The legislature passed several measures for the destruction of the leasehold system, and under the pressure of public opinion the great landlords rapidly sold their farms.'
A special enactment protects tenants against arbitrary treatment at the hands of landlords in respect of notice to quit and raising of rents.
Vast entailed estates were the property of a small group of landlords (in Bohemia 37.7%, in Moravia 34.4%, in Silesia 39.9% of all land belonged to owners representing 0.1% of the population), while great masses of the people did not own a single acre of their native land.
The great majority of the landlords were nobles of foreign origin who acquired their 'estates at the hands of the Habsburg conqueror from 1621 onwards, when, after the battle of the White Mountain, the lands of the Czech nobles and yeomen were confiscated, the owners being executed or, as adherents of the Moravian Brotherhood and other Protestant churches, preferring to pass into exile rather than surrender their faith.
Rent arises as soon as the land of a country has all become private property; "the landlords, like all other men, love to reap where they never sowed, and demand a rent even for its natural produce."
Rent, wages and profits, as they are the elements of price, are also the constituents of income; and the three great orders of every civilized society, from whose revenues that of every other order is ultimately derived, are the landlords, the labourers and the capital ists.
Economically and administratively on the landlords, or should be transformed into a class of independent communal proprietors.
The agricultural classes and the old landlords of the equestrian order (Cincinnatus, Curius Dentatus, Serranus and the Elder Cato) are to him the pillars of the state; and he bitterly laments the decline of agriculture in Italy (xviii.
Compelled to accept the conditions imposed by the landlords, the peasants had to pay rack-rents and to give compulsory labour in various forms for the use of their land.
Pursuing a policy intended to reconcile the peasantry to Russian rule and to break the power of the Polish nobility, the Russian government promulgated, during the outbreak in 1864, a law by which those peasants who were holders of land on estates belonging to private persons, institutions (such as monasteries and the like), or the Crown were recognized as proprietors of the soil-the state paying compensation to the landlords in bonds, and the peasants having to pay a yearly annuity to the state until the debt thus contracted had been cleared off.
Where the land is held by small peasant proprietors, they display a certain activity; where there are large greund landlords, these usually control them absolutely.
The victory was secured by a coalition between the agricultural interests and the manufacturers; the latter promised to vote for duties on corn if the landlords would suppoi~t the duties on iron.
The almost absolute power formerly wielded by the landlords, who within their own territories were lords of regality, hindered independent agricultural enterprise, and it was not till after the abolition of hereditable jurisdictions in 1748 that agriculture made real progress.
A large amount of capital was lost by tenants, and a few farms were thrown here and there upon the landlords' hands, but in no district was rent extinguished or were holdings abandoned.
They were kept in repair by the tenants and cotters, and, when their labour was not sufficient, by the landlords, who were required to " stent " (assess) themselves, customs also being sometimes levied at bridges, ferries and causeways.
He instantly arrested Murdoch, son of Albany, and Fleming of Cumbernauld, met parliament, dismissed it, retaining a committee (" the Lords of the Articles "), and took measures with landlords, who must display their charters; appointed an inquest into lay and clerical property; and imposed taxes to defray his ransom.
The zamindars of that time were raised to the status of landlords, with rights of transfer and inheritance, subject always to the payment in perpetuity of a rent-charge.
In the Central Provinces, where the landlords (Onalguzars) derive their title from the revenue settlements made under British rule, the rents are actually fixed by the settlement officer for varying periods.
(2) That in areas where the State receives its land revenue from landlords, progressive moderation is the key-note of the policy of Government, and that the standard of 50% of the assets is one which is almost uniformly observed in practice, and is more often departed from on the side of deficiency than of excess.
A second drawback from the point of view of the landlords was called forth by the fact that commutation for fixed rents gradually lessened the value of the exactions to which they were entitled.
In the Benares division, which was the first portion to come under British administration, the land revenue was permanently fixed in 1795, on the same principles that had been previously adopted in Bengal; and there a special class of tenants, as well as the landlords, enjoy a privileged status.
The ownership of property being largely in the hands of absentee landlords, the peasantry have little interest in the land, the profits from which go to enrich other provinces.
The next four decades were years of development disturbed, however, by friction between the assembly and the royal governors, and by bitter disputes, accompanied by much rioting, with the proprietors concerning land-titles (1744-1749) Independence of the absentee landlords was again claimed by virtue of the grants made by Nicolls nearly a century before.
With his fierce hatred of what he recognized as injustice, it was impossible that he should not feel exasperated at the gross misgovernment of Ireland for the supposed benefit of England, the systematic exclusion of Irishmen from places of honour and profit, the spoliation of the country by absentee landlords, the deliberate discouragement of Irish trade and manufactures.
The state, for instance, could perhaps more usefully engage in some great works, such as establishing reservoirs of water for the use of town populations on a systematic plan, or making a tunnel under one of the channels between Ireland and Great Britain, or a sea-canal across Scotland between the Clyde and the Forth, or purchasing land from Irish landlords and transferring it to tenants, than allow money to fructify or not fructify, as the case may be, in the pockets of individuals.
The social fabric was built up not on the towns, but on the great landlords; and when the centre of gravity began to move, first of all in Italy, to the towns, and crowded populations began to be massed together in them, the parochial systems broke down under the weight of the new conditions, and the people were in a state of spiritual and moral no less than physical destitution.
The landless men formed combinations, disputed with the landlords, and asked and often got twice as much as the old rates, despite of the murmurings of the employer.
But enough oldfashioned landlords remained to keep up the struggle with the peasants to the end of the 14th century and beyond, an.d the number of times that the Statute of Laborers was re-enacted and recast was enormous.
The monasteries, with their vast possessions, had become corporations of landlords, instead of associations for prayer and good works.
In the countryside the insurrection was accompanied by wholesale burnings of manor-rolls, the hunting down of unpopular bailiffs and landlords, and a special crusade against the commissioners of the poll-tax and the justices who had been enforcing the Statute of Laborers.
Irish landlords complained that their properties, ruined by the famine, and encumbered by the extravagances of their predecessors, could not bear the cost of this new poor law; and the ministry introduced and carried a measure enabling the embarrassed owners of life estates to sell their property and discharge their liabilities.
The encumbered estates act, though it substituted a solvent for an insolvent proprietary, placed the Irish tenants at the mercy of landlords of whom they had no previous knowledge, who were frequently absentees, who bought the land as a matter of business, and who dealt with it on business principles by raising the rent.
The new poor law, by throwing the maintenance of the poor on the soil, encouraged landlords to extricate themselves from their responsibilities by evicting their tenants.
Parliament neglected to give effect to these recommendations; in a country where agriculture was the chief ot almost only occupation, the tenant remained at his landlords mercy.
Outrages increased, obnoxious landlords and agents were boycotted the name of the first gentlelnan exposed to this treatment adding a new word to the language; and Forster, who had accepted the office of chief secretary, thought it necessary, in the presence of outrage and intimidation, to adopt stringent measures for enforcing order.
The penal laws against the Catholics, the iniquitous restrictions on Irish trade and industry, the selfish factiousness 'of the parliament, the jobbery and corruption of administration, the absenteeism of the landlords, and all the other too familiar elements of that mischievous and fatal system, were then in full force.