To encourage the poorer classes of the people to become landholders, it was decided that the lots offered for sale should be small, and that the purchaser should be allowed to pay by five or ten yearly instalments.
Extends the concessions obtained by the greater barons for themselves to the lesser landholders, the tenants of the tenants-in-chief.
The constables of these castles had adopted the custom of compelling these landholders to give money and not service, mercenaries being then hired to perform this.
Its benefits are confined to freemen, and of the benefits the lion's share fell to the larger landholders; the smaller landholders getting, it is true, some crumbs from the table.
The works were to be operated by the government foi ten years, and the cost assessed against the holders of the land.1 At the conclusion of this period the system was to pass into the control of the landholders, with no further charge by the government.
By a statute of 1633 landholders were enabled to have their tithes valued, and to buy them either at nine or six years' purchase, according to the nature of the property.
The first attempts at improvement cannot be traced farther back than 1723, when a number of landholders formed themselves into a society, under the title of the Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture in Scotland.
In order to conciliate even the Moslems, who include the bulk of the great landholders and of the urban population, its representatives visit the mosques in state on festivals; grants are made for the Mecca pilgrimage; and even the howling Dervishes in Serajevo are maintained by the state.
Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
One of them, Facts Addressed to Landholders, &c. (1780), written by Horne in conjunction with others, criticizing the measures of Lord North's ministry, passed through numerous editions; the other, A Letter on Parliamentary Reform (1782), addressed by him to Dunning, set out a scheme of reform, which he afterwards withdrew in favour of that advocated by Pitt.
After the Conquest the great ecclesiastical landholders claimed exemption from the jurisdiction of the shire, and in 1279 the abbot of Battle claimed to have his own coroner in the hundred of Wye.
The testimony of Domesday also establishes the existence in the reign of Edward the Confessor of what Stubbs describes as a " large class " of landholders who had commended themselves to some lord, and he regards it as doubtful whether their tenure had not already assumed a really feudal character.
His charities were large and his private life blameless; he was constantly visiting his diocese, correcting offenders and discharging other episcopal duties; and he compelled neighbouring landholders to restore estates which rightly belonged to the see of Hereford.
It is a country of large landholders and formerly of indigo planters.
This reluctance was due largely to the increasing independence of this class of landholders, who were beginning to learn that the sovereign, and not their immediate lord, was the protector of their liberties; the independence in its turn arose from the growth of the principle of heredity.
By becoming Pfahlburger men were able of escape from the tyranny of the large landholders, and consequently the princes strongly opposed the right of the towns to receive them.
The settlement is made with the landholders or zamindars, who are frequently a group of persons holding distinct shares in the land, and may be themselves petty cultivators.
It now consists of 48 members, of whom 28 are nominated, and the remainder are elected by local bodies, landholders, Mahommedans, &c. In Agra the chartered high court sitting at Allahabad, and in Oudh the court of the judicial commissioner, sitting at Lucknow, have final jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, subject to appeal to the privy council.
The policy pursued was to declare the permanency of the rights existing at the time of the British interposition, conditionally upon the maintenance of order; to adjust and guarantee the relations of subordinate and tributary chiefs to their superiors so as to prevent all further disputes or encroachments; and to settle the claims of the ousted landholders, who had resorted to pillage or blackmail, by fixing grants of land to be made to them, or settling the money allowances to be paid to them.
As Great Salt Lake City grew all landholders benefited, either by the location of their property or because of its size, the smaller lots being closer to the business centre and the larger tracts being in the outlying districts.
Acting through Lord Cornwallis, then governor-general, he ascertained and defined the rights of the landholders in the soil.
These landholders under the native system had started, for the most part, as collectors of the revenues, and gradually acquired certain prescriptive rights as quasi-proprietors of the estates entrusted to them by the government.
The status of each class of persons interested in the soil, from the government as suzerain, through the zaminddrs or superior landholders, the intermediate tenure-holders and the undertenants, down to the actual cultivator, is now clearly defined.
The few surviving English landholders had to fall into line with the newcomers.
Just as with the lay landholders, the change of personnel made a vast difference, not so much in the legal position of the new-corners as in the way in which they regarded their office.
All the northern landholders of Bilaspur belong to this tribe, which consequently occupies an influential position.
By a twofold coup detat, parliamentary and military, he culled the fruits of the Directorys systematic aggression and unpopularity, and realized the universal desires of the rich bourgeoisie, tired of warfare; of the wretched populace; of landholders, afraid of a return to the old order of things; of royalists, who looked upon Bonaparte as a future Monk; of priests and their people, who hoped for an indulgent treatment of Catholicism; and finally of the immense majority of the French, who love to be ruled and for long had had no efficient government.
Having no credit they found themselves at the mercy of their neighbors, the great landholders, and by degrees fell into the position of tenants, or into servitude.
Later we find the soil coming more and more into the possession of large landholders, and by the middle of the 3rd century B.C. nearly twofifths of Laconia belonged to women.
They were not even popularthe small landholders and subtenants discovered that their interests had not been sufficiently regarded, and lent themselves to an agitation against the provisional government, which was got up by Edward, the kings eldest son, who now appeared prominently in history for the first time.
After a short experience of these difficulties the king and council, whose sympathies were naturally with the landholders, issued an ordinance forbidding workmen of any kind to demand more than they had been.
The bureaucracy, the minor, landholders, the towns, and the clergy refused to join in the rising, and lent their aid for its suppression, because they were unwilling to see anarchy recommence.
By Johns time there were comparatively few landholders whose interests were fairly divided between the duchy and the kingdom.