He supported Frederick in his struggle with the anti-kings, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, and William II., count of Holland, and was put under the papal ban by Pope Innocent IV., Bavaria being laid under an interdict.
JULIUS JACOB HAYNAU (1786-1853), Austrian general, was the natural son of the landgrave - afterwards elector - of Hesse-Cassel, William IX.
In 1389 it was purchased by the landgrave of Thuringia, and with this district it formed part of Saxony.
Attempts were made to seize Tyndale at Worms, but he found refuge at Marburg with Philip, landgrave of Hesse.
It was recovered by the landgrave of Thuringia in 1388, but soon reverted to Hesse, and it became the residence of one of the branches of the Hessian royal house, a branch which died out in 1655.
(1547-1597), the youngest son of the landgrave Philip, received the upper county of Katzenelnbogen, and, selecting Darmstadt as his residence, became the founder of the Hesse-Darmstadt line.
By this the landgrave Alexander Frederick (b.
His grandmother then wished him to enter the army of the landgrave of Hesse, but he declined to serve "a tyrant," and a year later slipped away from Geneva and embarked for the United States.
About 1120 another Giso, count of Gudensberg, secured possession of the lands of the Werners; on his death in 1137 his daughter and heiress, Hedwig, married Louis, landgrave of Thuringia; and from this date until 1247, when the Thuringian ruling family became extinct, Hesse formed part of Thuringia.
The death of Henry Raspe, the last landgrave of Thuringia, in 1247, caused a long war over the disposal of his lands, and this dispute was not settled until 1264 when Hesse, separated again from Thuringia, was secured by his niece Sophia (d.
In the following year Sophia handed over Hesse to her son Henry (1244-1308), who, remembering the connexion of Hesse and Thuringia, took the title of landgrave, and is the ancestor of all the subsequent rulers of the country.
In 1509 William's young son, Philip, became landgrave, and by his vigorous personality brought his country into prominence during the religious troubles of the 16th century.
1721), son of the Landgrave William VI.
In 1909 the representative of this family was the Landgrave Ernest (b.
1761), and in 1909 its representative was the Landgrave Clovis (b.
Dietrich married Jutta, daughter of Hermann I., landgrave of Thuringia, and was succeeded in 1221 by his infant son Henry, surnamed the Illustrious; who on arriving at maturity obtained as reward for supporting the emperor Frederick II.
Against the pope a promise to succeed his uncle, Henry Raspe IV., as landgrave of Thuringia.
The first step towards this was the concession to the counts of the military prerogatives of dukes, a right enjoyed from the first by the counts of the marches (see Margrave), then given to counts palatine (see Palatine) and, finally, to other counts, who assumed by reason of it the style of landgrave (Landgraf, i.e.
In Germany, at his instigation, the archbishops with a few of the secular nobles in 1246 elected Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, German king; but the "priests' king," as he was contemptuously called, died in the following year, William II., count of Holland, being after some delay elected by the papal party in his stead.
He was on his way back to Switzerland when tile landgrave of Hesse Cassel named him professor of history.
Strassburg pronounced for conciliation: but the most powerful and zealous champion of peace was to be found in the landgrave Philip of Hesse, who recognized the absolute necessity - from a political standpoint - of the union of all German Protestants.
But it was obvious that a permanent coalition could not be expected unless some definite understanding on the debated point could be attained; and on the very same day the landgrave despatched to Zwingli an invitation to a colloquy, and received his prompt acquiescence.
The landgrave, however, was so far successful that the beginning of October (1529) saw the colloquy opened in the castle at Marburg.
The proceedings opened on the 1st of October with conferences between Luther and Oecolampadius, and Melanchthon and Zwingli: then on the two following days the discussion proper - confined almost entirely to Luther and Zwingli - was held before the landgrave and his guest Duke Ulrich of Wurttemberg, in the presence of more than fifty persons.
Since the landgrave, however, was reluctant to see the colloquy brought to an absolutely fruitless close, he requested Luther to draw up a list of the most important points of doctrine on which it might yet be possible to arrive at some degree of unanimity.
In the beginning of the 13th century the village received municipal rights; in 1232 it was captured and burned by the landgrave Conrad of Thuringia and his allies; in 1631 it was taken by William of Hesse; in 1760 it was successfully defended by General Luckner against the French; and in 1761 it was occupied by the French and unsuccessfully bombarded by the Allies.
Et le prince de Kaunitz (2 vols., Paris, 1889-1891); for further letters see Comte de Reiset, Lettres de la reine Marie Antoinette a la landgrave Louise de Hesse-Darmstadt (1865); id.
He assisted the first efforts of the Reformation at Magdeburg (1524), at Goslar (I 531) and at Einbeck (1534); took an active part in the debates at Schmalkalden (1537), where he defended the use of the sacrament by the unbelieving; and (1539) spoke out strongly against the bigamy of the landgrave of Hesse.
He wished to make Apitz his successor in Thuringia, a plan which was resisted by his two elder sons, and a war broke out which lasted until 1307, when he abandoned Thuringia, in return for a yearly payment, but retained the title of landgrave (see Thuringia).
In 1438 the landgrave of Hesse obtained rights of suzerainty over Waldeck, and the claims arising from this action were not finally disposed of until 1847, when it was decided that the rights of Hesse over Waldeck had ceased with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Among these the chief were the new elector of Saxony, John (who, unlike his brother, Frederick the Wise, had openly espoused the new doctrines), and the energetic Philip, landgrave of Hesse.
After a short apostasy, during which he supported Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, Conrad returned to the side of the Hohenstaufen and aided Conrad IV.
The landgrave of Hesse brought the two Reformers together in vain at Marburg in October 1529, and the whole Protestant movement broke into two camps, with the result that the attempt made at Schmalkalden in 1530 to form a comprehensive league of defence against all foes of the Reformation was frustrated.
In it stands a marble statue of the landgrave Frederick II.
Among other public places and buildings worthy of notice are the Roman Catholic church, with a splendid interior; the Kiinigs-platz, with a remarkable echo; the Karls-platz, with the statue of the landgrave Charles; and the Martins-platz, with a large church - St Martin's - with twin towers, containing the burial-vaults of the Hessian princes.
The park was first formed by the landgrave Frederick II., the husband of Mary, daughter of George II.
Of England, and was finished by his successor the landgrave William, after whom it was named.
The fortifications of the town were restored by the landgrave Philip the Magnanimous and his son William IV.
During the 16th century, and it was greatly improved by the landgrave Charles (1 6 541 73 o), who welcomed many Huguenots who founded the upper new town.
In 1762 Cassel was captured by the Germans from the French; after this the fortifications were dismantled and New Cassel was laid out by the landgrave Frederick II.
He died in 1525 while the Peasants' War was desolating his land, and was succeeded by his brother John, who was an enthusiastic supporter of the reformed faith and who shared with Philip, landgrave of Hesse, the leadership of the league of Schmalkalden.
He got an answer couched in somewhat ironical terms to the effect that Protestantism owed its existence in a measure to the house of Saxony, from which the prince descended, seeing that this house and that of the landgrave of Hesse had stood quite alone against Europe in upholding Luther and his cause.
His son Louis was appointed landgrave of Thuringia in 1130 by the emperor Lothair II.; by his marriage with Hedwig of Gudensberg in 1137 he obtained a large part of Hesse.
The next landgrave (1217-1227) was his son Louis IV.
The Illustrious, margrave of Meissen, a maternal grandson of the landgrave Hermann I.
Henry, however, found himself obliged to defend his title against Sophia, wife of Henry II., duke of Brabant, who was a daughter of the landgrave Louis IV., and it was not till 1263 that an arrangement was made by which Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate fell to Henry.
Balthasar's son, Frederick the Peaceful, became landgrave in 1406 but left the government largely to his father-in-law Gunther, count of Schwarzburg.
And his brother William, the latter in 1445 became sole landgrave as William III.
1638), son of George I., landgrave of HesseDarmstadt, although it did not become independent of HesseDarmstadt until 1768.
In 1806, during the long reign of the landgrave Frederick V., which extended from 1751 to 1820, Hesse-Homburg was mediatized, and incorporated with Hesse-Darmstadt; but in 1815 by the congress of Vienna the latter state was compelled to recognize the independence of Hesse-Homburg, which was increased by the addition of Meisenheim.