He supported Frederick in his struggle with the anti-kings, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, and William II., count of Holland, and was put under the papal ban by Pope Innocent IV., Bavaria being laid under an interdict.
JULIUS JACOB HAYNAU (1786-1853), Austrian general, was the natural son of the landgrave - afterwards elector - of Hesse-Cassel, William IX.
In 1389 it was purchased by the landgrave of Thuringia, and with this district it formed part of Saxony.
Attempts were made to seize Tyndale at Worms, but he found refuge at Marburg with Philip, landgrave of Hesse.
It was recovered by the landgrave of Thuringia in 1388, but soon reverted to Hesse, and it became the residence of one of the branches of the Hessian royal house, a branch which died out in 1655.
(1547-1597), the youngest son of the landgrave Philip, received the upper county of Katzenelnbogen, and, selecting Darmstadt as his residence, became the founder of the Hesse-Darmstadt line.
His grandmother then wished him to enter the army of the landgrave of Hesse, but he declined to serve "a tyrant," and a year later slipped away from Geneva and embarked for the United States.
About 1120 another Giso, count of Gudensberg, secured possession of the lands of the Werners; on his death in 1137 his daughter and heiress, Hedwig, married Louis, landgrave of Thuringia; and from this date until 1247, when the Thuringian ruling family became extinct, Hesse formed part of Thuringia.
In the following year Sophia handed over Hesse to her son Henry (1244-1308), who, remembering the connexion of Hesse and Thuringia, took the title of landgrave, and is the ancestor of all the subsequent rulers of the country.
In 1509 William's young son, Philip, became landgrave, and by his vigorous personality brought his country into prominence during the religious troubles of the 16th century.
1721), son of the Landgrave William VI.
Dietrich married Jutta, daughter of Hermann I., landgrave of Thuringia, and was succeeded in 1221 by his infant son Henry, surnamed the Illustrious; who on arriving at maturity obtained as reward for supporting the emperor Frederick II.
Against the pope a promise to succeed his uncle, Henry Raspe IV., as landgrave of Thuringia.
In Germany, at his instigation, the archbishops with a few of the secular nobles in 1246 elected Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, German king; but the "priests' king," as he was contemptuously called, died in the following year, William II., count of Holland, being after some delay elected by the papal party in his stead.
He was on his way back to Switzerland when tile landgrave of Hesse Cassel named him professor of history.
Strassburg pronounced for conciliation: but the most powerful and zealous champion of peace was to be found in the landgrave Philip of Hesse, who recognized the absolute necessity - from a political standpoint - of the union of all German Protestants.
But it was obvious that a permanent coalition could not be expected unless some definite understanding on the debated point could be attained; and on the very same day the landgrave despatched to Zwingli an invitation to a colloquy, and received his prompt acquiescence.
The landgrave, however, was so far successful that the beginning of October (1529) saw the colloquy opened in the castle at Marburg.
The proceedings opened on the 1st of October with conferences between Luther and Oecolampadius, and Melanchthon and Zwingli: then on the two following days the discussion proper - confined almost entirely to Luther and Zwingli - was held before the landgrave and his guest Duke Ulrich of Wurttemberg, in the presence of more than fifty persons.
In the beginning of the 13th century the village received municipal rights; in 1232 it was captured and burned by the landgrave Conrad of Thuringia and his allies; in 1631 it was taken by William of Hesse; in 1760 it was successfully defended by General Luckner against the French; and in 1761 it was occupied by the French and unsuccessfully bombarded by the Allies.
Et le prince de Kaunitz (2 vols., Paris, 1889-1891); for further letters see Comte de Reiset, Lettres de la reine Marie Antoinette a la landgrave Louise de Hesse-Darmstadt (1865); id.
He assisted the first efforts of the Reformation at Magdeburg (1524), at Goslar (I 531) and at Einbeck (1534); took an active part in the debates at Schmalkalden (1537), where he defended the use of the sacrament by the unbelieving; and (1539) spoke out strongly against the bigamy of the landgrave of Hesse.
In 1438 the landgrave of Hesse obtained rights of suzerainty over Waldeck, and the claims arising from this action were not finally disposed of until 1847, when it was decided that the rights of Hesse over Waldeck had ceased with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Among these the chief were the new elector of Saxony, John (who, unlike his brother, Frederick the Wise, had openly espoused the new doctrines), and the energetic Philip, landgrave of Hesse.
After a short apostasy, during which he supported Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, Conrad returned to the side of the Hohenstaufen and aided Conrad IV.
The landgrave of Hesse brought the two Reformers together in vain at Marburg in October 1529, and the whole Protestant movement broke into two camps, with the result that the attempt made at Schmalkalden in 1530 to form a comprehensive league of defence against all foes of the Reformation was frustrated.
In it stands a marble statue of the landgrave Frederick II.
Among other public places and buildings worthy of notice are the Roman Catholic church, with a splendid interior; the Kiinigs-platz, with a remarkable echo; the Karls-platz, with the statue of the landgrave Charles; and the Martins-platz, with a large church - St Martin's - with twin towers, containing the burial-vaults of the Hessian princes.
The park was first formed by the landgrave Frederick II., the husband of Mary, daughter of George II.
Of England, and was finished by his successor the landgrave William, after whom it was named.
The fortifications of the town were restored by the landgrave Philip the Magnanimous and his son William IV.
Philip, landgrave of Hesse >>
1217), landgrave of Thuringia and count palatine of Saxony, was the second son of Louis II.
The Hard, landgrave of Thuringia, and Judith of Hohenstaufen, sister of the emperor Frederick I.
Little is known of his early years, but in 1180 he joined a coalition against Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, and with his brother, the landgrave Louis III., suffered a short imprisonment after his defeat at Weissensee by Henry.
In consequence of this step the Saxons attacked Thuringia, but the landgrave was saved by Frederick's arrival in Germany in 1212.
In 1821 a small mediate principality was formed out of the old lordship of Ratibor and certain ecclesiastical domains, and was conferred upon Victor Amadeus, landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg, as compensation for some Hessian territory absorbed by Prussia.
In 1457 he arranged a marriage between his eldest son John, and Margaret, daughter of William III., landgrave of Thuringia, who inherited the claims upon Hungary and Bohemia of her mother, a granddaughter of the emperor Sigismund.
The Order of the Golden Lion was founded in 1770 by the landgrave Frederick II.
Frederick I., the next landgrave (1730-1751), had become by marriage king of Sweden, and on his death was succeeded in the landgraviate by his brother William VIII.
The reign of the next landgrave, William IX.
It was captured by the landgrave of Meissen in 1476, and belonged thenceforth to Saxony, until it was ceded to Prussia in 1815.