The basin of the Garonne occupies south-western France with the exception of the tracts covered by the secondary basins of the Adour, the Aude, the Hrault, the Orb and other smaller rivers, and the lowlying plain of the Landes, which is watered by numerous coast rivers, notably by the Leyre.
The marshy districts of Sologne, Brenne, Landes and Dombes still contain large undrained tracts.
Some of these are on the south-west coast, in the Landes, as Carcans, Lacanau, Biscarosse, Cazau, Sanguinet; but more are to be found in the south and south-east, in Languedoc and Provence, as Leucate, Sigean, Thau, Vaccars, Berre, &c. Their want of depth prevents them from serving as roadsteads for shipping, and they are useful chiefly for fishing or for the manufacture of bay-salt.
In 1901 ~7% of the Isre J ura population lived in centres containing more than 2000 Landes inhabitants, whereas in 1861 the proportion was 28%.
The value per acre of land, which exceeds 48 in the departments of Seine, Rhne and those fringing the north-west coast from Nord to Manche inclusive, is on the average about 29, though it drops to 16 and less in Morbihan, Landes, Basses-Pyrnes, and parts of the Alps and the central plateau.
Maize covers considerable areas in Landes, Basses-Pyrnes and other south-western departments.
The poorer grazing lands on the upper levels of the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and Vosges, the Landes, the more outlying regions of the central plateau, southern Brittany, Sologne, Berry, ChampagnePouilleuse, the Crau and the Carnargue, these districts being given over for the most part to sheep-raising.
The most wooded parts of France are the mountains Loire and plateaus of the east and of the north-east, comprising Seine the pine-forests of the Vosges and Jura (including the beau- Bouch~e tiful Forest of Chaux), the Forest of Haye, the Forest of Rhne Ardennes, the Forest of Argonne, &c.; the Landes, where M rth replanting with maritime pines has transformed large areas Ardenn of marsh into forest; and the departments of Var and Vos as Arige.
Lons-le-Saunier LANDES Mont-de-Marsan LOIRE St-Etienne..
- Gascogne (Landes, Chalosse).
Landes, Basses-Pyrnes, Hautes-Pyrnbes.
- Gironde, Dordogne, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Basses- PyrnCes.
Historia trevirensis diplomatica et pragmatics (3 vols., Augsburg, 1750); Marx, Geschichte des Erzstifts Trier (5 vols., Trier, 1858-1864); Leonardy, Geschichte des trierischen Landes and Volkes (Saarlouis, 1871); Woerl, Fiihrer durch die Stadt Trier (8th ed., Leipzig, 1898).
" It is undoubted, that to every townshyppe that standeth in tyllage in the playne countrey, there be errable landes to plowe and sowe, and leyse to tye or tedder theyr horses and mares upon, and common pasture to kepe and pasture their catell, beestes and shepe upon; and also they have medowe grounde to get theyr hey upon.
Baur, Urkunden zur hessischen Landes-, Ortsand Familiengeschichte (Darmstadt, 1846-1873); Steiner, Geschichte des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 18 3318 34); Klein, Das Grossherzogtum Hessen (Mainz, 1861); Ewald, Historische Ubersicht der Territorialverdnderungen der Landgrafschaft Hessen and des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 1872); F.
1835, to Italy in 1839 and to America in 1843, and these visits led to the publication of various works - England in 1835 (1836), Beitriige zur neuern Geschichte aus dem Britischen Museum und Reichsarchive (1836-39), Italien, Beitrage zur Kenntniss dieses Landes (1840), Die Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika (1845).
Aire, Landes, France >>
Van Werveke, Beitrdge zur Geschichte des Luxemburger Landes (Luxemburg, 1886-1887); J.
Schmidt, Elsass and Lothringen (Leip., 1859); Spach, Histoire de la basse Alsace et de la vale de Strasbourg (Stras., 1860); von Miillenheim Rechberg, Die Annexion des Elsass durch Frankreich and Rilckblick auf die Verwaltung des Landes, 1648-1697 (Stras., 1897); Du Prel, Die deutsche Verwaltung in Elsass, 1870-1879 (Stras., 1879); L.
Richter, Literatur des Landes and Volkskunde des Konigreichs Sachsen (Dresden, 1903); Zemmrich, Landeskunde des Konigreichs Sachsen (Leipzig, 1906); and Pelz, Geologie des Konigreichs Sachsen (Leipzig, 1904).
He was constantly employed on missions in the provinces, and distinguished himself by his rigorous repression of opponents of the revolution in the departments of Landes, Basses-Pyrenees and Gers.
Entering the department of Gers, the Adour receives the Arros on the right bank and begins to describe the large westward curve which takes it through the department of Landes to the sea.
See Regel, ThÃ¼ringen, ein landeskundlicher Grundriss (Jena, 1897); Trinius, ThÃ¼ringer Wanderbuch (8 vols., Minden, 1896-1902); Prescholdt, Der ThÃ¼ringer Wald und seine nÃchste Umgebung, in Forschungen zur deutschen Landes- und Volkskunde, vol.
The western coast region is well compared with the Landes of Gascony.
Exports include timber, mine-props, turpentine, resinous material from the Pyrenees and Landes and zinc ore; leading imports are the coal and Spanish minerals which supply the large metallurgical works of Le Boucau at the mouth of the river, the raw material necessary for the chemical works of the same town, wine, and the cereals destined for the flour mills of Pau, Peyrehorade and Orthez.
The lordship (seigneurie) of Albret (Labrit, Lebret), situated in the Landes, gave its name to one of the most powerful feudal families of France in the middle ages.
On the drift-sands of France, especially in the Gironde, forests have been formed mainly of this pine; the seeds, sown at first under proper shelter and protected by a thick growth of broom sown simultaneously, vegetate rapidly in the sea-sand, and the trees thus raised have, by their wind-drifted seed, covered much of the former desert of the Landes with an evergreen wood.
In the centre there are two plateaus, partly covered with landes, unproductive moorland: the southern plateau is continued by the Montagnes Noires, and the northern is dominated by the Monts d'Arree.
Many of the landes were cleared and converted into excellent pasturage, and on the coast marketgardening made great progress.
Hauthaler (Salzburg, 1899); Pichler, Salzburgs Landesgeschichte (Salzburg, 1865); Doblhoff, Beitrage zum Quellenstudium Salzburgischer Landeskunde (Salzburg, 18 9318 95); Greinz, Die Erzdiiizese Salzburg (Vienna, 1898); Rieder, Kurze Geschichte des Landes Salzburg (Vienna, 1905); E.