In these brown types with bodies of considerable thickness (Laminariaceae and Fucaceae), there is, however, a further differentiation of the internal tissues.
Cells of this type are often called trumpet-hyphae (though they have no connection with the hyphae of Fungi), and in some genera of Laminariaceae those at the periphery of the medulla simulate the sieve-tubes of the higher plants in a striking degree, even (like these latter) developing the peculiar substance callose on or in the perforated cross-walls or sieve-plates.
This is the case in the Fucaceae, and in a very marked degree in the Laminariaceae in question, where the assimilative frond is borne at the end of an extremely long supporting and conducting stipe.
In many Laminariaceae the thallus also grows regularly in thickness by division of its surface layer, adding to the subjacent permanent tissue and thus forming a secondary meristem.
This leptom is not so highly differentiated as in the most advanced Laminariaceae, but shows some of the characters of sieve-tubes with great distinctness.
In Fucaceae, Dictyotacea, and in Laminariaceae and Sphacelariaceae, among Phaeosporeae, the thallus consists of a true parenchyma; elsewhere it consists of free filaments, or filaments so compacted together, as in Cutleriaceae and Desmarestiaceae, as to form a false parenchyma.
In Fucaceae and Laminariaceae the inner tissue is differentiated into a conducting system.
In Laminariaceae secondary cylindrical props arise obliquely from the base of the thallus.
In Laminariaceae there is a distinction of stipe and blade.
Moreover, for the important family of the Laminariaceae only unilocular sporangia are known to occur; and for many species of other families, only one or other kind, and in some cases neither kind, has hitherto been observed.
Algae of more delicate texture than either Fucaceae or Laminariaceae also occur in the region exposed by the ebb of the tide, but these secure their exemption from desiccation either by retaining water in their meshes by capillary attraction, as in the case of Pilayella, or by growing among the tangles of the larger Fucaceae, as in the case of Polysiphonia fastigiate, or by growing in dense masses on rocks, as in the case of Laurencia pinnatifida.
It generally takes the form of a single flattened disc as in the Fucaceae, or a group of fingerlike processes as in Laminariaceae, or a tuft of filaments as in many instances.
The tubes have their cavity dilated at intervals, and Penhallow has therefore compared them with the trumpet-hyphae of Laminariaceae, but no transverse septa are anywhere visible.
Carruthers compared the usually non-cellular structure of Nematophycus with that of Siphoneae such as Halimeda, while recognizing the points of resemblance to Laminariaceae (e.g.
The vesicles of Fucaceae and Laminariaceae prevent the sinking of the bulkier forms. But why certain Fucaceae favour certain zones in the littoral region, why certain epiphytes are confined to certain hosts, why Red and Brown Algae are not better represented in fresh water or Green Algae in salt, - these are problems to which it is difficult to find a ready answer.