The embryo is provided with ten hooks, and appears to select Lamellibranchs (Mactra) for its intermediate host.
These organisms live in cockles, oysters and other lamellibranchs and they so affect the gonads of these molluscs as to castrate and sterilize their host.
In many embryo Lamellibranchs a centro-dorsal primitive shell-gland or follicle has been detected.
In many Lamellibranchs a gland is found on the hinder surface of the foot in the mid line, which secretes a substance which sets into the form of threads - the so-called " byssus " - by means of which the animal can fix itself.
In some Lamellibranchs (Pecten, Spondylus, Pholas, Mactra, Tellina, Pectunculus, Galeomma, &c.), although cephalic eyes are generally absent, special eyes are developed on the free margin of the mantle-skirt, apparently by the modification of tentacles commonly found there.
This is not always the case with Lamellibranchs; there is in the group a tendency for the corresponding edges of the mantle-skirt to fuse together by concrescence, and so to form a more or less completely closed bag, as in the Scaphopoda (Dentalium).
In such Lamellibranchs as the oysters, scallops and many others which have the edges of the mantleskirt quite free, there are numerous tentacles upon those edges.
The hinder adductor muscle is always large in Lamellibranchs, but the anterior adductor may be very small (Heteromya), or absent altogether (Monomya).
In fact all Lamellibranchs begin with a condition in which there is only one adductor, and that not the posterior but the anterior.
The ligament is simple in Anadonta; in many Lamellibranchs it is separated into two layers, an outer and an inner (thicker,and denser).
Whilst the valves of the shell are equal in Anodonta we find in many Lamellibranchs (Ostraea, Chama, Corbula, &c.) one valve larger, and the other smaller and sometimes flat, whilst the larger shell may be fixed to rock or to stones (Ostraea, &c.).
In the shell of Lamellibranchs three distinct layers can be distinguished: an external chitinous, non-calcified layer, the periostracum; a middle layer composed of calcareous prisms perpendicular to the surface, the prismatic layer; and an internal layer composed of laminae parallel to the surface, the nacreous layer.
Other Lamellibranchs may have a larger foot relatively than has Anodonta.
These organs are characteristic of all Lamellibranchs; they do not vary except in size, being sometimes drawn out to streamer-like dimensions.
There is no embryological evidence to support this suggested connexion, and, as will appear immediately, the history of the gill-plates in various forms of Lamellibranchs does not directly favour it.
The gill-plates have a structure very different from that of the labial tentacles, and one which in Anodonta is singularly complicated as compared with the condition presented by these organs in some other Lamellibranchs, and with what must have been their original condition in the ancestors of the whole series of living Lamellibranchia.
Such a subdivision of the pallial chamber, and direction of the currents set up within it do not exist in a number of Lamellibranchs which have the gill-lamellae comparatively free (Mytilus, Arca, Trigonia, &c.), and it is in these forms that FIG.17.
This is not an unusual arrangement in Lamellibranchs, and a similar disposition occurs in some Gastropoda (Haliotis).
The food of the Anodonta, as of other Lamellibranchs, consists of microscopic animal and vegetable organisms, brought to the mouth by the stream which sets into the sub-pallial chamber at the lower siphonal notch (e in fig.
A good case for the examination of the question as to whether blood enters the pericardium of Lamellibranchs, or escapes from the foot, or by the renal organs when the animal suddenly contracts, is furnished by the Ceratisolen legumen, which has red blood-corpuscles.
The pair of renal organs of Anodonta, called in Lamellibranchs the organs of Bojanus, lie below the membranous floor of the pericardium, and open into it by two well-marked apertures (e and f in fig.
The renal organs may be more ramified in other Lamellibranchs than they are in Anodonta.
In some Lamellibranchs the osphradial ganglia receive nerve-fibres, not from the visceral ganglia, but from the cerebral ganglia along the visceral commissure.
The otocysts of Cyclas are peculiarly favourable for study on account of the transparency of the small foot in which they lie, and may be taken as typical of those of Lamellibranchs generally.
This deficiency is very usual in the class; at the same time, many Lamellibranchs have tentacles on the edge of the mantle supplied by a pair of large well-developed nerves, which are given off from the cerebro-pleural ganglion-pair, A, When free swimming, shows the two dentigerous valves widely open.
In some Lamellibranchs - for instance, the European Oyster and the Pisidium pusillum - the sexes are united in the same individual; but here, as in most hermaphrodite animals, the two sexual elements are not ripe in the same individual at the same moment.
In the most primitive Lamellibranchs there is no separate generative aperture but the gonads discharge into the renal cavity, as in Patella among Gastropods.
This byssus is not homologous with that of other Lamellibranchs, but originates from a single glandular epithelial cell embedded in the tissues on the dorsal anterior side of the adductor muscle.
The early larva of Anodonta is not unlike the trochosphere of other Lamellibranchs, but the mouth is wanting.
Other Lamellibranchs exhibit either a trochosphere larva which becomes a veliger differing only from the Gastropod's and Pteropod's veliger in having bilateral shell-calcifications instead of a single central one; or, like Anodonta, they may develop within the gill-plates of the mother, though without presenting such a specialized 210 1P -' 1 °* larva as the glochidium.
The pleural ganglia are also united by a long visceral commissure as in Lamellibranchs, and this commissure bears two ganglia lying close beneath the epidermis in front of the anus.
The degeneration produced by sedentary habits in all lamellibranchs has in the oyster reached its most advanced stage.
In Anodon and the majority of lamellibranchs the ventricle surrounds the intestine; in the oyster the two are quite independent, the intestine passing above the pericardium.
On this view then the Aplacophora are more primitive than the Polyplacophora in the relations of coelom, gonad and coelomoducts; and the genital ducts of the Chitons have arisen either by metameric repetition within the group, or by the gradual loss of an original connexion between the generative sac and the renal tube, as in Lamellibranchs and Gastropods, the generative sac acquiring a separate duct and opening to the exterior on each side.
The foot is a muscular mass without cuticle or skeleton, excepting certain cuticular structures such as the byssus of Lamellibranchs and the operculum of Gastropods, which do not aid in locomotion.
The pallial eyes of Pecten and other Lamellibranchs, and of Chitons.
Hermaphroditism is secondary, and occurs in one sub-class of Gastropoda, in some Lamellibranchs, and in one sub-order of Amphineura.
As a rule no parental care is exhibited, but incubation of the developing ova within some part of the parental body, or receptacles attached to the parent, occurs in some Lamellibranchs, some Gastropods, and in Argonauta among the Cephalopods.
As a rule Molluscs are free and more or less active, but many Lamellibranchs are sedentary, and a few of these and of Gastropods are permanently fixed to their habitat.