- Portion;of the body-wall of Hydra, showing ectoderm cells above, separated by " structureless lamella " from three flagellate endoderm cells below.
Form the radial canals (r.c.), ring-canal (c.c.), and endoderm-lamella (e.l., fig.
Apart from the weighty arguments which the development furnishes against the theories of Allman and Mechnikov, it may be pointed out that neither hypothesis gives a satisfactory explanation of a structure universally present in medusae of whatever class, namely the endoderm-lamella, discovered by the brothers O.
The Hertwigs when they discovered the endoderm-lamella showed on morphological grounds that polyp and medusa are independent types, each produced by modification in different directions of a more primitive type represented in development by the actinulastage.
The whole of the middle lamella or originally formed cell-wall separating one from another disappears before the adult state is reached, so that the walls of the hydroids consist of a framework of lignified bars, with open communication between the cell cavities.
Along the sutural border of the elytron, the chitinous lamella forms a tubular space within which are numerous glands.
The di-iodide, T11 21 is obtained as black lamella by passing the vapour of the tetraiodide over heated mercury in an atmosphere of hydrogen (E.
T, tentacle; g.p, gastric pouch; r.c, radial canal not present in C and C'; c.c, circular or ring-canal; e.1, endoderm-lamella formed by concrescence.
The sexes are distinct, and the generative opening is on the side of the body above the edge of the inner lamella of the inner gill.
Oesophagus, stomach, radial canals, ring-canal and tentacle-canals, constitute together the gastrovascular system and are lined throughout by endoderm, which forms also a flat sheet of cells connecting the radial canals and ring canal together like a web; this is the so-called endoderm-lamella (e.l.), a most important feature of medusan morphology, the nature of which will be apparent when the development is described.
The two apposed layers of endoderm in the cathammal area undergo complete fusion to form a single layer of epithelium, the endoderm-lamella of the adult medusa.
Lamella, a small or thin plate, and Gr.
Rr, Inner lamella of the right inner gill-plate.
S, Line of concrescence of the outer lamella of the left outer gill-plate with the left mantle-flap.
X, Aperture of the left organ of Bojanus (nephridium) exposed by cutting the attachment of the inner lamella of the inner gillplate.
Line of concrescence of the inner lamella of the right inner gill-plate with the inner lamella of the left inner gill-plate.
In the drawing of Dreissensia the individual filaments f,f,f are cut across in one lamella at the A.
The filaments take on a secondary grouping, the surface of the lamella being thrown into a series of halfcylindrical ridges, each consisting of ten or twenty filaments; a filament of much greater strength and thickness than the others may be placed between each pair of groups.
On the left side these lamellae are represented as having only a small reflected growth, on the right side the reflected ramus or lamella is complete (fr and er).
The axis of the ctenidium is seen to be adherent to, or fused by concrescence with, the body-wall, and moreover on each side the outer lamella of the outer gill-plate is fused to the mantle, whilst the inner lamella of the inner gill-plate is fused to the foot.
C, A portion of B more highly ch, Chitonous substance of the o.1, Outer lamella., [magnified.
The series or the outer lamella of the outer oval holes on the back of the gill-plate and seen from the interlamella are the water-pores whicr lamellar surface.
In the same figure the free part of the inner lamella of the inner gill-plate resting on the foot is marked z, whilst the attached parjt - the most anterior - has been snipped with scissors so as to show the genital and nephridial apertures x and y.
Adaxial lamella of outer gillplate.
1 (5)) left by the non-concrescence of a part of the inner lamella of the inner gill-plate with the foot.
Er, Reflected lamella of outer gillplate.
Adaxial lamella of inner gillplate.
Reflected lamella of inner gill-plate.
Whether administered in the form of the official lamella or by subcutaneous injection, physostigmine causes a contraction of the pupil more marked than in the case of any other known drug.
Such gums are formed abundantly in pycnidia, and, absorbing water, swell and carry out the spores in long tendrils, which emerge for days and dry as they reach the air, the glued spores gradually being set free by rain, wind, &c. In oidial chains (Sclerotinia) a minute double wedge of wall-substance arises in the middle lamella between each pair of contiguous oidia, and by its enlargement splits the separating lamella.
These disjunctors serve as points of application for the elastic push of the swelling spore-ends, and as the connecting outer lamella of cell-wall suddenly gives way, the spores are jerked asunder.
Endophytic parasites may be intracellular, when the fungus or its mycelium plunges into the cells and destroys their contents directly (Olpidium, Lagenidium, Sclerotinia, &c.), but they are far more frequently intercellular, at any rate while young, the mycelium growing in the lacunae between the cells (Peronospora, Uredineae) into which it may send short (Cystopus), or long and branched (Peronospora Calotheca) haustoria, or it extends in the middle lamella (Ustilago), or even in the solid substance of the cell-wall (Botrytis).
Miyoshi then demonstrated that if Botrytis is sown in a lamella of gelatine, and this lamella is superposed on another similar one to which a chemotropic substance is added, the tips of the hyphae at once turn from the former and enter the latter.
If a thin cellulose membrane is interposed between the lamellae, the hyphae nevertheless turn chemotropically from the one lamella to the other and pierce the cellulose membrane in the process.
The hyphae will also dissolve their way through a lamella of collodion, paraffin, parchment paper, elder-pith, or even cork or the wing of a fly, to do which it must excrete very different enzymes.
The most valuable preparations of this potent drug are the liquor atropinae sulphatis, which is a 1% solution, and the lamella - for insertion within the conjunctival sac - which contains one five-thousandth part of a grain of the alkaloid.
The work of van Tieghem, van Senus, Fribes, Omeliansky and others has now shown that while certain anaerobic bacteria decompose the substance of the middle lamella - chiefly pectin compounds - and thus bring about the isolation of the cellulose fibres when, for instance, flax is steeped or " retted," they are unable to attack the cellulose itself.
C. Bourne, 1887) is always intercalated as a secretion by one or both of them; this is a gelatinoid, primitively structureless lamella, which in the first instance serves merely as a basal support for the cells.
L.o.c., Endoderm lamella (line of concrescence of the walls of the enteric cavity of the umbrella, whereby its single chamber is broken up into four pouches).
Gills or branchiae may be developed by parts of an appendage becoming thin-walled and vascular and either expanded into a thin lamella or ramified.