The current in the shunt coil lags 90 degrees behind the impressed electromotive force of the circuit to be measured; hence if the main current is in step with the potential difference of the terminals of the supply mains, which is the case when the supply is given wholly to electric lamps, then the field due to the main coil differs from that due to the shunt coil by 90 degrees.
The improvement in the productiveness of labour depends largely on its division; and he proceeds accordingly to give his unrivalled exposition of that principle, of the grounds on which it rests, and of its greater applicability to manufactures than to agriculture, in consequence of which the latter relatively lags behind in the course of economic development.
But in fact the change of constitution often lags greatly, so that the metal may have the constitution normal to a region higher than that in which it is, or even a patchwork constitution, representing fragments of those of two or more regions.
The long-continued incitement to catabolism of the waking day thus of itself predisposes the nerve cells towards rebound into the opposite phase; the increased catabolism due to the day's stimuli induces increase of anabolism, and though recuperation goes on to a large extent during the day itself, the recuperative process is slower than, and lags behind, the disintegrative.
Hence the phase of the vibration lags behind that of the force by the amount s~, which lies between 0 and 1/2nr or between 1/2ir and Ir, according as e12 ~u.