Immediately on his return from Finland Alexius was despatched by his father to Staraya Rusya and Ladoga to see to the building of new ships.
Above the sea, still filled by Lakes Peipus, Ladoga, Onega, Byelo-ozero, Lacha, Vozhe, and many thousands of smaller lakes, skirts the central plateau on the N., and follows the same E.N.E.
The Neva (40 m.) flows from Lake Ladoga into the Gulf of Finland.
The Volkhov, discharging into Lake Ladoga, and forming part of the Vyshniy-Volochok system of canals, is an important channel for navigation; it flows from Lake Ilmen, which receives the Msta, connected with the Volga, and the Lovat.
The Svir, also discharging into Lake Ladoga, flows from Lake Onega, and, being part of the Mariinsk canal system, is of great importance for navigation.
Reiches, for reptiles generally; Rodoszkowski and the publications of the Entomological Society generally for insects; Czerniaysky for the marine fauna of the Black Sea; Kessler for that of Lakes Onega and Ladoga; Grimm for the Caspian.
In the Baltic Sea, as well as in the lakes of its basin (Ladoga, Onega, Ilmen, &c.), the yearly value is estimated at £ 200,000.
Nestor, an old monkish chronicler Origin of Kiev, relates that in the middle of the 9th century of the the Slav and Finnish tribes inhabiting the forest region around Lake Ilmen, between Lake Ladoga and the upper waters of the Dnieper, paid tribute to military adventurers from the land of Ras, which is commonly supposed to have been a part of Sweden.
NEVA, a river of Russia, which carries off into the Gulf of Finland the waters of Lakes Ladoga, Onega, Ilmen and many smaller basins.
It issues from the south-west corner of Lake Ladoga in two channels, which are obstructed by sandstone reefs, so that the better of the two has a depth of only 7 to 16 ft.
The ordinary rise and fall of the river is comparatively slight, but when the west wind blows steadily for a long time, or when Lake Ladoga sends down its vast accumulations of block-ice, inundations of a dangerous kind occur, as in 1777, 1824, 1879 and 1903.
SCHLUSSELBURG, a town of Russia, in the government of St Petersburg, situated on low ground surrounded by marshes, at the issue of the river Neva from Lake Ladoga, 40 m.
A long and fatiguing tour of inspection over the latest of his great public works, the Ladoga Canal, during the autumn of 1724, brought back another attack of his paroxysms, and he reached Petersburg too ill to rally again, though he showed himself in public as late as the 16th of January 1725.
It touches at its south-eastern extremity the government of St Petersburg, includes the northern half of Lake Ladoga, and is separated from the Russian governments of Arkhangelsk and Olonets by a sinuous line which follows, roughly speaking, the water-parting between the rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea and the White Sea.
- A line drawn from the head of the Gulf of Bothnia to the eastern coast of Lake Ladoga divides Finland into two distinct parts, the lake region and the nearly uninhabited hilly tracts belonging to the Kjolen mountains, to the plateau of the Kola peninsula, and to the slopes of the plateau which separates Finland proper from the White Sea.
Quite different is the character of the pentagonal space comprised between the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, Lake Ladoga, and the above-mentioned line traced through the lakes Ulea and Piellis.
The chief lakes are: Lake Ladoga, of which the northern half belongs to Finland; Saima (three and a half times larger than Lake Leman), whose outlet, the Vuoksen, flows into Lake Ladoga, forming the mighty Imatra rapids, while the lake itself is connected by means of a sluiced canal with the Gulf of Finland; the basins of Pyha-selka, Ori-vesi and Piellis-jarvi; Pajane, surrounded by hundreds of smaller lakes, and the waters of which are discharged into the lower gulf through the Kymmene river; Nasi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, whose outflow is the Kumo-elf, flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia; Ulea-trask, discharged by the Ulea into the same gulf; and Enare, belonging to the basin of the Arctic Ocean.
Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous deposits are found on the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and also along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean (probably Devonian), and in the Kjolen.
The denudation and destruction of the granites gave rise to the Ladoga schists and various deposits of the same period, which were subsequently strongly folded.
On the other side the White Sea was connected by Lakes Onega and Ladoga with the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic. In the depths of the Baltic and of Lakes Vener and Vetter there actually exist animals which belong to the arctic fauna and are remnants of the ancient ice-sea.
The estuaries of all the great German rivers (for the Niemen and Vistula are properly Polish rivers) debouched in Swedish territory, within which also lay two-thirds of Lake Ladoga and one-half of.
LADOGA (formerly NEvo), a lake of northern Russia, between 59° 56' and 61° 46' N., and 29° 53' and 32° 50' E., surrounded by the governments of St Petersburg and Olonets, and of Viborg in Finland.
The level of Lake Ladoga is 55 ft.
No fewer than seventy rivers enter Ladoga, pouring into it the waters of numberless smaller lakes which lie at higher levels round it.
Ladoga discharges its surplus water by means of the Neva, which flows from its south-western corner into the Gulf of Finland, rolling down its broad channel 104,000 cubic ft.
The water of Ladoga is very pure and cold; in May the surface temperature does not exceed 36° Fahr., and even in August it reaches only 50° and 53°, the average yearly temperature of the air at Valamo being 36.8°.
Only a small part of the Ladoga ice is discharged by the Neva; but it is enough to produce in the middle of June a return of cold in the northern capital.
The population (35,000) on the shores of the lake is sparse, and the towns - Schlusselburg (5285 inhabitants in 1897); New Ladoga (4144); Kexholm (1325) and Serdobol - are small.
Simultaneously, another war, also an heritage from Charles IX., had been proceeding in the far distant regions round lakes Ilmen, Peipus and Ladoga, with Great Novgorod as its centre.