After this the metal is allowed to rest for a time in the pot at a temperature above its freezing point and is then ladled out into ingot forms, care being taken at each stage to ladle off the top stratum.
Finally, fluid steel can be run or poured off, since it is perfectly fluid, while glass cannot be thus treated, but is withdrawn from the furnace by means of either a ladle or a gatherer's pipe, and the temperature required for this purpose is much lower than.
The glass is taken from the furnace in large iron ladles, which are carried upon slings running on overhead rails; from the ladle the glass is thrown upon the cast-iron bed of a rolling-table, and is rolled into sheet by an iron roller, the process being similar to that employed in making plate-glass, but on a smaller scale.
The sheet thus rolled is roughly trimmed while hot and soft, so as to remove those portions of glass which have been spoilt by immediate contact with the ladle, and the sheet, still soft, is pushed into the open mouth of an annealing tunnel or " lear," down which it is carried by a system of moving grids.
The zinc vapour produced descends through the pipe and condenses into liquid zinc, which is collected in a ladle held under the outlet end of the pipe.
During electrolysis, oxygen is evolved at the anode and escapes from the outer vessel, while the sodium deposited in globules on the cathode floats upwards into the iron cylinder, within which it accumulates, and from which it may be removed at intervals by means of a perforated iron ladle, the fused salt, but not the metal, being able to pass freely through the perforations.
At length when the furnace was tapped a white slag was drawn off from the top, and the liquid metal beneath was received into a ladle and poured into cast-iron moulds.
A, Ladle bringing the cast iron from the blast-furnace.
It consists essentially of a series of thin-walled moulds, BB, carried by endless chains past the lip of a great ladle A.
Adds enough carbon to give it the content desired, and then immediately pours the steel into a great claylined casting ladle by turning the converter over, and through a nozzle in the bottom of this ladle pours the steel into its ingot moulds.
Another way of introducing the carbon is Darby's process of throwing large paper bags filled with anthracite, coke or gas-carbon into the casting ladle as the molten steel is pouring into it.
Whatever be the form into which the steel is to be rolled, it must in general first be poured from the Bessemer converter in which it is made into a large clay-lined ladle, and thence cast in vertical pyramidal ingots.
The difficulty in the way of this system was that, in pouring the steel from ladle to mould, more or less of it:occasionally spatters, and these spatterings, if they strike the rails or the running gear of the cars, obstruct and foul them, preventing the movement of the train, because the solidified steel is extremely tenacious.
He then pours or taps the molten charge from the furnace into a large clay-lined casting ladle, giving it the final additions of manganese, usually with carbon and often with silicon, needed to give it exactly the desired composition.
He then casts it into its final form through a nozzle in the bottom of the casting ladle, as in the Bessemer process.