His high-water trousers exposed black silk socks with little ladders up the sides, held in place with garters, something Dean hadn't seen in decades.
There are many other important points of crane construction too numerous to mention here, but it may be said generally that the advent of electricity has tended to increase speeds, and in consequence great attention is paid to all details that reduce friction and wear, such as roller and ball bearings and improved methods of lubrication; and, as in all other quick-running machinery, great stress has to be laid on accuracy of workmanship. The machinery, thus being of a higher class, requires more protection, and cranes that work in the open are now fitted with elaborate crane-houses or cabins, furnished with weather-tight doors and windows, and more care is taken to provide proper platforms, hand-rails and ladders of access, and also guards for the revolving parts of gearing.
From falling off ladders, scaffolds, &c. I I 449 9.
The younger and smaller trees are remarkably durable, especially when the bark is allowed to remain on them; and most of the poles imported into Britain for scaffolding, ladders, mining-timber and similar uses are furnished by this fir.
The climbing of ladders from deep mines not only lessens the efficiency of the men by reason of fatigue, but often tends to increase the mortality from diseases of the heart.
Near the cathedral are the arsenal (now housing the historical museum, in which are preserved many relics of the "Escalade" of 1602, including the famous ladders), and the maison de ville or town hall.
In December 1602 Francois de Sales was consecrated bishop of Geneva (since 1535 the bishops had lived at Annecy), and a few days later the duke of Savoy made a final attempt to get hold of the city by a surprise attack in the night of 11-12th December 1602 (Old Style), known in history as the "Escalade," as ladders were used to scale the city walls.
(The architect being at that time also the contractor.) The chapters are -- (1) on various machines, such as scaling-ladders, windmills, &c.; (2) on windlasses, axles, pulleys and cranes for moving heavy weights, such as those used by Chersiphron in building the great temple of Diana at Ephesus, and on the discovery by a shepherd of a quarry of marble required to build the same temple; (3) on dynamics; (4) on machines for drawing water; (5) on wheels for irrigation worked by a river; (6) on raising water by a revolving spiral tube; (7) on the machine of Ctesibius for raising water to a height; (8) on a very complicated water engine, the description of which is not intelligible, though Vitruvius remarks that he has tried to make the matter clear; (9) on machines with wheels to register the distance travelled, either by land or water; (10) on the construction of scorpiones for hurling stones; (11) and (12) on balistae and catapults; (13) on battering rams and other machines for the attack of a fortress; (14) on shields (testudines) to enable soldiers to fill up the enemy's ditches; (15) on other kinds of testudines; (16) on machines for defence, and examples of their use in ancient times.
The monasteries stand on the summit of these pinnacles; they are accessible only by aid of rope and net worked by a windlass from the top, or by a series of almost perpendicular ladders climbing the cliff.