Solution in dilute alkali was supposed to be accompanied by the rupture of the lactone ring with the formation of the quinonoid salt shown in 2.
The cyanhydrin is hydrolysable to an acid, the lactone of which may be reduced by sodium amalgam to a glucoheptose, a non-fermentable sugar containing seven carbon atoms. By repeating the process a non-fermentable gluco-octose and a fermentable glucononose may be prepared.
Fischer) CH20H CH20H / CH CH OH (CH OH) 2 -> (CH OH)2 CH-OH CH OH CO CHO -> Lactone -> Hexose.
Also Kiliani found that the lactone derived from the cyanhydrin of natural arabinose (laevo) was identical with the previous lactone except that its rotation was equal and opposite.
It was then found that on reducing the lactone of the acid obtained from d-mannonic acid, ordinary glucose resulted.
Other forms are: d- and l-gulose, prepared from the lactones of the corresponding gulonic acids, which are obtained from d- and /-glucose by oxidation and inversion; d- and l-idose, obtained by inverting with pyridine d- and l-gulonic acids, and reducing the resulting idionic acids; d- and l-galactose, the first being obtained by hydrolysing milk sugar with dilute sulphuric acid, and the second by fermenting inactive galactose (from the reduction of the lactone of d, l-galactonic acid) with yeast; and d- and l-talose obtained by inverting the galactonic acids by pyridine into d- and l-talonic acids and reduction.
On reducing the lactone prepared from the inactive acid an inactive galactose is obtained from which l-galactose may be separated by fermentation.
Succinyl chloride, obtained by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on succinic acid, is a colourless liquid which boils at 190° C. In many respects it behaves as though it were dichlorbutyro-lactone, /CC12 C 2 He >O; e.g.
On reduction it yields butyro-lactone, and when CO condensed with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride it yields chiefly -y-diphenylbutyro-lactone.
A little hydrochloric acid, methylene diresorcin [(HO) 2 C 6 H 3] 2 CH 2, whilst with chloral hydrate, in the presence of potassium bisulphate, it yields the lactone of tetra-oxydiphenyl methane carboxylic acid (J.