Plato only speaks of one, but in course of time the number increased to ten according to Lactantius 1 The word is usually derived -- from 2 o-(30XXa, the Doric form of Oeou (ovX7) (= will of God).
The verbal inter- Geography pretation of Scripture led Lactantius (c. A.D.
Even the stormy days of the last persecution yielded some considerable writers, such as Methodius in the East and Lactantius in the West.
Carlyle, if bitterer still), Lactantius Firmianus, &c., &c.'
The fathers of the church did not encourage scientific pursuits, which Lactantius (4th century) declared to be unprofitable.
Commodian, Victorinus Pettavensis, Lactantius and Sulpicius Severus were all pronounced millennarians, holding by the very details of the primitive Christian expectations.
Victorinus wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse of John; and all these theologians, especially Lactantius, were diligent students of the ancient Sibylline oracles of Jewish and Christian origin, and treated them as divine revelations.
In the hands of moralistic theologians, like Lactantius, they certainly assume a somewhat grotesque form, but the fact that these men clung to them is the clearest evidence that in the West millennarianism was still a point of "orthodoxy" in the 4th century.
329-330) thinks that this work is part of a larger work, A Preaching of Peter and a Preaching of Paul, implied in a statement of Lactantius (Inst.
5), and Lactantius (Inst.
According to Lactantius, it prophesied the overthrow of Rome and the advent of Zeus to help the godly and destroy the wicked, but omitted all reference to the sending of the Son of God.
It was here that Christian Latin literature took its rise, and to this province belong the names of Tertullian and Cyprian, of Arnobius and Lactantius, above all of Augustine.
LACTANTIUS FIRMIANUS (c. 260 - c. 340), also called Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius) Lactantius Firmianus, was a Christian writer who from the beauty of his style has been called the "Christian Cicero."
Lactantius' chief work, Divinarum Institutionum Libri Septem, is an "apology" for and an introduction to Christianity, written in exquisite Latin, but displaying such ignorance as to have incurred the charge of favouring the Arian and Manichaean heresies.
Jerome states that Lactantius wrote an epitome of these Institutions, and such a work, which may well be authentic, was discovered in MS. in the royal library at Turin in 1711 by C. M.
Besides the Institutions Lactantius wrote several treatises: (I) De Ira Dei, addressed to one Donatus and directed against the Epicurean philosophy.
Is not in the earlier editions of Lactantius; it was discovered and printed by Baluze in 1679.
Jerome speaks of Lactantius as a poet, and several poems have been attributed to him: - De Ave Phoenice (which Harnack thinks makes use of Clement), De Passione Domini and De Resurrectione (Domini) or De Pascha ad Felicem Episcopum.
As long as the Christian Church was itself persecuted by the pagan empire, it advocated freedom of conscience, and insisted that religion could be promoted only by instruction and persuasion (Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Lactantius); but almost immediately after Christianity was adopted as the religion of the Roman empire the persecution of men for religious opinions began.
The invectives against idolatry of the early Jewish and Christian apologists, of Philo, Minucius Felix, Tertullian, Arnobius, Lactantius and others, are very good reading and throw much light on the question how an ancient pagan conceived of his idols.
Lactantius preserves the answer of the pagans so attacked (De origine Erroris, ii.2): We do not, they said, fear the images themselves, but those beings after whose likeness they were fashioned and by whose names they were consecrated.
X.4, and Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum, 34), and in 3 1 3 the emperors Constantine and Licinius published the edict of Milan, proclaiming the principle of complete religious liberty, and making Christianity a legal religion in the full sense (see Eusebius x.
5, and Lactantius 48.
For the 3rd, and especially the 4th and following centuries, the writers are much more numerous; for instance, in the East, Origen and his disciples, and later Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, Apollinaris, Basil and the two Gregories, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Ephraim the Syrian, Cyril of Alexandria, Pseudo-Dionysius; in the West, Novatian, Cyprian, Commodian, Arnobius, Lactantius, Hilary, Ambrose, Rufinus, Jerome, Augustine, Prosper, Leo the Great, Cassian, Vincent of Lerins, Faustus, Gennadius, Ennodius, Avitus, Caesarius, Fulgentius and many others.
The consulship of the two Gemini by Lactantius, Div.
18, and (Lactantius?) de morte pers.
His work was destroyed,' but the copious extracts which we find in Lactantius, Augustine, Jerome, Macarius Magnus and others show how profoundly he had studied the Christian writings, and how great ' was his talent for real historical research.
During the centuries preceding the birth of Christ there grew up an apocalyptic literature which regarded as a primary truth the conception of a 1 Lactantius, Inst.
The same appears from a passage in Lactantius, De Origine Erroris, H.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
At a later period his style fascinated Christian writers, notably Lactantius, the " Christian Cicero," Jerome and S.
The alternative derivation, from religare, to fasten, bind, is that adopted by Lactantius (Inst.
19) says: " Lactantius may be wrong in his etymology, but he has certainly seized the broad popular sense of the word when he connects it with the idea of an obligation by which man is bound to an invisible God."
Lactantius, writing early in the 4th century, is even more sarcastic in his references to the heathen practice.
There is, indeed, evidence that they were so used before Lactantius wrote.
Vigilantius, a presbyter of Barcelona, still occupied the position of Tertullian and Lactantius in this matter.
There is, however, no mention of ceremonial candles in the detailed account of the services of the Church of England given by William Harrison (Description of England, 1570); and the attitude of the Church towards their use, until the ritualistic movement of the 17th century, would seem to be authoritatively expressed in the Third Part of the Sermon against Peril of Idolatry, which quotes with approval the views of Lactantius and compares " our Candle Religion " 3 This is common to the Eastern Church also.