In Argentina these burdens bear heavily upon the labouring classes, and in years of depression they send away by thousands immigrants unable to meet the high costs of living, For the year 1900 the total expenditures of the national government, 14 provincial governments, and 16 principal cities, were estimated to have been $208,811,925 paper, which is equivalent to $91,877,247 gold, or (at $5.04 per pound stg.) to £18,229,612, ios.
The strong downward tendency of prices made a reduction of wages imperative; but the labouring classes failed to recognize any such necessity, and strongly resented any reductions proposed by employers.
The labouring convicts are distributed among four jails and nineteen stations; the self-supporters in thirtyeight villages.
It is a district of poor streets, inhabited by a labouring population employed in leather and other factories, and in the Surrey Commercial Docks and the wharves bordering the river.
Benjamin Franklin, who was born and spent his boyhood in Boston, left boo() to the city in his will; it amounted in 1905 to $403,000, and constituted a fund to be used for the good of the labouring class of the city.
The last-named may be considered the founder of the strong company of entomological workers now labouring in America.
The majority, however, were laymen, of all kinds and degrees - nobles, artisans, scholars, students, labouring men.
In a more noble fashion the Crusade survived in the minds of the navigators; "Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Albuquerque, and many others dreamed, and not insincerely, that they were labouring for the deliverance of the Holy Land, and they bore the Cross on their breasts."
The principal occupation is agriculture, in which 44% of the labouring population was engaged in 1900, but only 12.6% of the total land surface was enclosed in farms, of which only 34.6% was improved, and the total agricultural product for 1899 was valued at $18,309,104.
The labouring population is mainly Egyptian; the Greeks and Levantines are usually shopkeepers or petty traders.
This position he founded on the law of wages formulated by Ricardo, and accepted by all the leading economists, that wages are controlled by the ordinary relations of supply and demand, that a rise in wages leads to an increase in the labouring population, which, by increasing the supply of labour, is followed by a corresponding fall of wages.
Lenin regarded such strivings as a betrayal of the claims of the labouring class.
Ever since Austerlitz the Austrian officers had been labouring to reconstitute and reform their army.
He was now labouring, with extreme assiduity, to ground himself in the forms and habits of literary style.
He had joined his efforts to those of Francis Place, of Westminster, and other philanthropists, to relieve and improve the condition of the working classes, labouring especially to establish schools for them on the Lancasterian system, and promoting the formation of savings banks.
To this vindictive legislation, which converted the labouring population into a sullenly hostile 1 It should be remembered that at this time one-third of the land belonged to the church, and the remainder was in the hands of less than a dozen great families who had also appropriated the royal domains.
Everywhere - at Rome, at Treves, at Moutier-en-Der, at Gerona in Spain, at Barcelona - he had friends or agents to procure him copies of the great Latin writers for Bobbio or Reims. To the abbot of Tours he writes that he is "labouring assiduously to form a library," and "throughout Italy, Germany and Lorraine (Belgica) is spending vast sums of money in the acquisition of MSS."
His parents belonged to the labouring class.
The country was still labouring under the curse of an inconvertible currency originatingwith the Legal Tender Act res - paperY g dncy.
The potent duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, and other foes were labouring for the same end, and already in July 1495 a papal brief had courteously summoned Savonarola to Rome.
They were chosen from among labouring men, who at the age of twentyfive might ask the body of ministers to be admitted as candidates.
Thus the spirit of the labouring classes became more and more inflamed, and at the beginning of 1918 the Government had the greatest difficulty in suppressing an anti-war agitation among the working classes, which assumed a threatening form.
In 18J7 he commenced the third expedition up the Niger, and after labouring with varied success, returned to England and was consecrated, on St Peter's Day 1864, first bishop of the Niger territories.
In his last words on the scaffold he alludes to the dangers and slanders he had endured labouring to keep an uniformity in the external service of God; and Bacon's conception of a spiritual union founded on variety and liberty was one completely beyond his comprehension.
This Society may be defined, in its original conception and well-avowed object, as a body of highly trained religious men of various degrees, bound by the three personal vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, together with, in some cases, a special vow to the pope's service, with the object of labouring for the spiritual good of themselves and their neighbours.
Johnson began in politics to oppose the aristocratic element .and became the spokesman and champion of the poorer and labouring classes.
Down to 1848, and even still later, " Democracy " was used to cover the whole mass of the people, pre-eminently represented by the broad strata of the bourgeoisie; in 1900 the Democratic party itself meant by this term the rule of the labouring class organized as a nation, which, by its numerical superiority, thrust aside all other classes, including the bourgeoisie, -and excluded them from participation in its rule.
There are 980 doctors (most of them fully qualified) labouring in British and American missions; and in 1 9 10 it was calculated that the in-patients in mission hospitals exceeded 160,000, while the visits of out-patients in a year were about 5,000,000.
Its total membership is under ioo,000, and it has some 350 missionaries, labouring in the most unpromising fields - Greenland, Labrador, Alaska, Central America, Tibet, and among the Hottentots.
The labouring man's pig is his bank, and is fed on scraps, small potatoes and waste products.
From 1840 to 1860 the enterprise made slow progress; but since the latter date it has spread with great rapidity along the whole line of the Western Ghats, clearing away the primeval forest, and opening a new era of prosperity to the labouring classes.
Madison now opposed Hamilton's measures for the funding of the debt, the assumption of state debts, and the establishment of a National Bank, and on other questions he sided more and more with the opposition, gradually assuming its leadership in the House of Representatives and labouring to confine the powers of the national government within the narrowest possible limits; his most important argument against Hamilton's Bank was that the constitution did not provide for it explicitly, and could not properly be construed into permitting its creation.
On the 17th Vergniaud presided at the Convention, and it fell to him, labouring under the most painful excitement, to announce the fatal result of the voting.
The homestead of a householder or head of a family to the value of $2000 and properly recorded is exempt from levy, seizure, garnishment or forced sale, except for purchase money, for services of a labouring person or mechanic, for liabilities incurred by a public officer, fiduciary or attorney for money collected, for taxes, for rent or for legal fees of a public officer.
The family library, family pictures, school books, a seat or pew in a house of worship, a lot in a burial ground, necessary wearing apparel, a limited amount of furniture and household utensils, some of a farmer's domestic animals and agricultural implements, and the wages of a labouring man who is a householder are exempt from levy or distress.
The Roman Catholic Church has many followers amongst the labouring population of Irish descent in the industrial districts.
The great bulk of the farming and labouring members of the Church now definitely abandoned their " Ancient Mother," to whom, however, the Welsh gentry still adhered.
During these years Chile held the anomalous position of a country spending large sums annually to secure immigrants while at the same time her own labouring classes were emigrating by thousands to the neighbouring republics to improve their condition.
According to this constitution the sovereignty resides in the nation, but suffrage is restricted to married citizens over twenty-one and unmarried citizens over twenty-five years of age, not in domestic service, who can read and write, and who are the owners of real estate, or who have capital invested in business or industry, or who receive salaries or incomes proportionate in value to such real estate as investment; and as 75% of the population is classed as illiterate, and a great majority of the labouring classes is landless, badly paid, and miserably poor, it is apparent that political sovereignty in Chile is the well-guarded possession of a small minority.
As a large proportion of the labouring classes lived in the small towns and rural communities, they received comparatively little attention.
It brings us near to the object and end for which I have now for two years been steadily labouring - the union of the South African colonies and states.
The staple diet of the labouring classes and small farmers is fish, especially the dried codfish called bacalhdo, rice, beans, maize bread and meal, olive oil, fruit and vegetables.
Both these groups of Indians are peaceable and industrious, and form an important labouring element.
Under the Allotment Acts district councils were empowered to provide allotments for the labouring population of their district, if they were satisfied that there was a demand for allot- Allot- ments, that these could not be obtained at a reasonable meats.
This industry has been greatly prejudiced by civil wars, which not only destroyed the plantations and interrupted transportation, but deprived them of the labouring force essential to their maintenance and development.
He survived the publication four years, dying on the 15th of January 1623, labouring for his country to the last.
He returned again and again to their production, seldom labouring on sonnets and lyrics of the Victorian mould.
BUPHONIA, in Greek antiquities, a sacrificial ceremony, forming part of the Diipolia, a religious festival held on the 14th of the month Skirophorion (June - July) at Athens, when a labouring ox was sacrificed to Zeus Polieus as protector of the city in accordance with a very ancient custom.
Although the slaughter of a labouring ox was forbidden, it was considered excusable in the exceptional circumstances; none the less it was regarded as a murder.
The ten years during which he held this office coincided with much misery and unrest among the labouring classes, and the government policy, for which he was mainly responsible, was one of severe repression.