Nor were other labourers, more nearly connected with the producing interests, satisfied with a reduction of wages because produce had fallen in price all round.
Of these 41,661 cultivate their own land, 15,408 are fixed tenants, 24,031 are regular labourers, and no less than 72,753 day labourers; while there are 35,056 shepherds.
By a further act of 1541 - which was not repealed until 1845 - artificers, labourers, apprentices, servants and the like were forbidden to play bowls at any time save Christmas, and then only in their master's house and presence.
A considerable percentage of these arrivals and departures represents seasonal labourers, who come out from Europe solely for the Argentine wheat harvest and should not be classed as immigrants.
The pastoral and agricultural industries have been hampered by fluctuations in the value of the currency, farm products being sold at a gold value for the equivalent in paper, while labourers are paid in currency.
6d., stone-masons 1 is 6d., plasterers 12s., painters 11s., blacksmiths ros., and navvies and general labourers 8s., and work was very plentiful.
It is noticed that labourers employed in deep mines worked by shafts suffer less from fever than do those who are engaged in stripping the alluvial deposits.
Cattle were hired for ploughing, working the watering-machines, carting, threshing, etc. The Code fixed a statutory wage for sowers, ox-drivers, field-labourers, and hire for oxen, asses, &c.
In many towns most of the skilled labourers and a great many of the unskilled (for instance, the grain-porters at Odessa and elsewhere) are Jews.
Finally, in the Baltic provinces nearly all the land belongs to the German landlords, who either farm the land themselves, with hired labourers, or let it in small farms. Only one-fourth of the peasants are farmers, the remainder being mere labourers, who are emigrating in great numbers.
Supply, the value of land is in proportion to the number of permanent labourers settled on it, and the landed proprietors naturally try to attract to their estates as many peasants as possible; and in this competition the large proprietors have evidently an advantage over their humbler and weaker rivals.
The remedy they proposed was that the labourers should be prohibited from migrating from one estate to another, and an order to that effect was issued, with the result that the peasants, being no longer able to change their domicile and seek new employers, fell practically under the unlimited power of the proprietors on whose land they resided.
Under the disguise of doctors, midwives, school teachers, governesses, factory hands or common labourers, they sought to make proselytes among the peasantry and the workmen in the industrial centres by revolutionary pamphlets and oral explanations.
As husbandmen they are not remarkable; but as graziers, as cartmen, as labourers, they are excellent.
Of the Pharaohs was a country of great estates farmed Egypt either by tenants or by slaves or labourers under the superintendence of stewards.
To meet this situation, the Statute of Labourers 1351) enacted that no man should refuse to work at the same rate of wages as prevailed before the plague.
The years 1830-1833 are especially memorable for a disastrous outbreak of sheep-rot and for agrarian outrages, caused partly by the dislike of the labourers to the introduction of agricultural machines.
A large number of agricultural labourers were thus only in partial employment, and their withdrawal from the land was of minor importance as compared with the shrinkage in the number of those permanently employed.
The number of " agricultural labourers and shepherds," which affords a more precise index, declined in a still more marked degree.
It may, however, be noticed that the period 1850-1903 was marked by a steady increase of the cash wages of the farm labourer, as indicated in the following table from the Report on the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers issued by the Board of Trade in 1905.
Average Weekly Cash Wages of ordinary Agricultural Labourers employed on certain Farms in England and Wales.
It would seem that in his fits of despondency one of the thoughts that marred his dreams of human improvement was the apparently inexorable character of economic laws, condemning thousands of labourers to a cramped and miserable existence, and thousands more to semistarvation.
Local preachers received notice to quit their holdings, labourers were discharged, those who opened their cottages for meetings were evicted, and to show any hospitality to a travelling preacher was to risk the loss of home and employment.
The people are industrious, and many of them seek employment as labourers in the Morea and Asia Minor.
The aborigines, Sheng fan, or " wild savages," deserved the appellation in some respects, for they lived by the chase and had little knowledge even of husbandry; while the Chinese themselves, uneducated labourers, acknowledged no right except that of might.
Those employed in workshops, whose overseers were themselves most commonly of servile status, had probably a harder lot than domestics; and the agricultural labourers were not unfrequently chained, and treated much in the same way as beasts of burden.
We have seen that free persons had all along been to some extent employed in the cultivation of land as hired labourers, and, as we shall presently find, also as tenants on the great estates.
Thus, out of every lot of 100 shipped from Africa 17 died in about 9 weeks, and not more than 50 lived to be effective labourers in the islands.
In parts where European authority remained weak, as in the hinterland of the Portuguese province of Angola and the adjacent regions of Central Africa, native potentates continued to raid their neighbours, and from this region many labourers were (up to 1910) forcibly taken to work on the cocoa plantation in St Thomas.
Six centuries elapsed before the accidental discovery of a sepulchral chamber by some labourers digging for pozzolana earth (May 31, 1578) revealed to the amazed inhabitants of Rome " the existence," to quote a contemporary record, " of other cities concealed beneath their own suburbs."
A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.
Practically all the industries and occupations of this extensive region depend upon them for labourers and servants.
The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty.
The labourers are commonly obtained from the Cholos, or Indian inhabitants of the sierras, who are accustomed to high altitudes, and are generally efficient and trustworthy.
Formerly the Czech labourers, artisans and domestic servants who came to Vienna were somewhat ashamed of their mother-tongue, and anxious to conceal that evidence of their origin as speedily as possible.
In the desert, too, there is a widely scattered tribe, the Salubi, which from its name (Salib, cross) is conjectured to be of early Christian origin; they are great hunters, killing ostriches and gazelles; the Arabs despise them as an inferior race, but do not harm them; they pay a small tax to the tribe under whose protection they live, and render service as labourers, for which they receive in the spring milk and cheese; at the date harvest they get wages in kind; with this, and the produce of the chase, they manage to exist in the desert without agriculture or flocks.
Cheap agricultural labour is supplied by the convicts, by the liberated convicts, the Kanakas, and (to some extent) labourers from the New Hebrides.
One of the most successful labourers in the science of hydrodynamics at this period was Pierre Louis Georges Dubuat (1734-1809).
(Matilda or Maud) was one of the chief founders of religious houses, and so great was the number of monasteries built in this king's reign that it was said almost all the labourers became bricklayers and carpenters and there was much discontent in consequence.
Apart from this movement the most notable events in the Transvaal at this period were the development of agriculture,' the gradual revival of trade (the output of the gold mines in 1909 totalled f 30,925,000, and at the end of the year 156,000 native labourers were employed), and the continued difficulty with regard to British Indians.
JOSEPH ARCH (1826-), English politician, founder of the National Agricultural Labourers' Union, was born at Barford, a village in Warwickshire, on the Loth of November 1826.
A rise then came in the wages of agricultural labourers, but this had the unforeseen effect of destroying the union; for the labourers, deeming their object gained, ceased to "agitate."