From a sick-bed, from which he never rose, he conducted this work with surprising energy, and there composed those poems, too few in number, but immortal in the English language, such as the "Song of the Shirt" (which appeared anonymously in the Christmas number of Punch, 1843), the "Bridge of Sighs" and the "Song of the Labourer," which seized the deep human interests of the time, and transported them from the ground of social philosophy into the loftier domain of the imagination.
Perhaps Erysichthon may be explained as the personification of the labourer, who by the systematic cultivation and tilling of the soil endeavours to force the crops, instead of allowing them to mature unmolested as in the good old times.
Profane cursing and swearing is made punishable by the Profane Oaths Act 1745, which directs the offender to be brought before a justice of the peace, and fined five shillings, two shillings or one shilling, according as he is a gentleman, below the rank of gentleman, or a common labourer, soldier, &c.
He realized that with the enclosure of the waste lands and the absorption of small into large ho] dings, the commonfield farmer must migrate to the town or become a hired labourer; but he also realized that to feed a rapidly growing industrial population, the land must be improved by draining, marling, manuring and the use of better implements, in short by the investment of the capital which the yeoman farmer, content to feed himself and his own family, did not possess.
It may, however, be noticed that the period 1850-1903 was marked by a steady increase of the cash wages of the farm labourer, as indicated in the following table from the Report on the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers issued by the Board of Trade in 1905.
Of this contribution to science, as of all the rest which have since proceeded from him, may be said in the words he himself has applied (ut supra, p. 271) to the work of another labourer in a not distant field: " This is a model paper for unbiassed observation, and freedom from that pleasant mode of supposing instead of ascertaining what is the true nature of an anatomical element."
His father was a poor farm labourer, and could not afford to send him to school long enough even to learn to read and write.
This system, by diminishing the freeman's mastery over himself and his power to determine his occupation, reduced the interval between him and the slave; and the latter on the one hand, the free domestic servant and workshop labourer on the other, both passed insensibly into the common condition of serfdom.
Marchi's line of investigation was followed by the Commendatore De Rossi, and his brother Michele, the former of whom was Marchi's fellow-labourer during the latter part of his explorations; and it is to them that we owe the most exhaustive scientific examination of the whole subject.
Like a true Hegelian he saw three stages in the development of labour: the ancient and feudal period, which, through the subjection of the labourer, sought solidarity without freedom; the reign of capital and the middle classes, established in 1789, which sought freedom by destroying solidarity; and the new era, beginning in 1848, which would reconcile solidarity with freedom by introducing the principle of association.
But the evidence was practically unanimous that the Indian was undesirable in Natal other than as a labourer and the commission recommended compulsory repatriation.
An unsuccessful European carpenter or other mechanic, or even labourer, not infrequently occupied this position.
An American writer has expressed his satisf action that the day-labourer can now have on his table at a nominal price glass dishes of elaborate design, which only an expert can distinguish from hand-cut crystal.
C. Carey, who attracts him both by his theory of value, which suggests an ultimate harmony of the interests of capitalist and labourer, and also by his doctrine of "national" political economy, which advocates protection on the ground that the morals and culture of a people are promoted by having its whole system of industry complete within its own borders.
AUGUSTE LAURENT BURDEAU (1851-1894), French politician, was the son of a labourer at Lyons.
ANTOINE JACQUES CLAUDE JOSEPH, COMTE BOULAY DE LA MEURTHE (1761-1840), French politician and magistrate, son of an agricultural labourer, was born at Chamousey (Vosges) on the 19th of February 1761.
After three years more with the family as a day labourer at West Haven, he succeeded, with his father's consent, in being apprenticed in the office of The Northern Spectator, at East Poultney, Vermont.
For the settlement of disputes between labourers and employers there is a state board, appointed by the governor and consisting of an employer of labour, a labourer and a disinterested citizen.
One day's gratuitous labour out of seven or more can be demanded of labourers either on private or on government estates; but in 1882 this form of labour was for the most part abolished as far as government estates were concerned, each labourer so exempted paying one guilder per year.
4 (the law of the muzzled ox) is used to show that God's labourer is worthy of his hire.'
So also does that of the labourer: when the wealth of the nation is progressive, his wages are high; they are low when it is stationary or retrogressive.
His father was a day-labourer and very poor.
By various devices the labourer would then be kept constantly in debt to his employer and be held in involuntary servitude for an indefinite time.
A law forbidding under severe penalties a labourer from hiring himself to a second employer without giving notice of a prior contract, and an employer from hiring a labourer known by him to be bound by such a contract, had aided in the development of the system, though it had been enacted for a different purpose.
State laws made liable to prosecution for misdemeanour any contract labourer who, having received advances, failed for any but good cause to fulfil the contract; or any contract labourer who made a second contract without giving notice tohis second employer of a prior and unfulfilled contract; or any employer of a labourer who had not completed the term of a prior contract.
Here he spent two more years on a farm, and then, securing employment as a drover, worked his way to Philadelphia and finally to Albany, New York, where for two years he taught school, studied medicine, and was a labourer on the Erie Canal.
The people depend so entirely upon agriculture, and the harvest is so entirely destroyed by a single monsoon failure, that wherever a total failure occurs the landless labourer is immediately thrown out of work and remains out of work for the whole year.
The food is there, perhaps at a slightly enhanced price, but the unemployed labourer has no money to buy it.
No Chinese labourer is allowed to enter any other Territory of the Union from Hawaii; and the act of Congress of the 26th of February 1885, " to prohibit the importation and migration of foreigners and aliens under contract or agreement to perform labour in the United States, its Territories and the District of Columbia," and the amending and supplementary acts, are extended to it.
As a matter of fact it recognizes as actual citizens only the labourer, or, in other words, the proletariat.
At first he went to Jena, but Zinzendorf at once sought to secure him as a fellow labourer, though the count wished to obtain from him a declaration which would remove from the Pietists of Halle all blame with regard to the disruption.
Other discoveries at Tiryns were a beehive tomb, perfectly preserved and used throughout the classical period, some pottery vases which bear painted inscriptions in characters said to be derived from the Cretan script, and an accidental find of Mycenaean treasure in 1915 by a labourer employed in the agricultural school.
His father was a labourer, but the friars of Arbois gave the boy a good education, and one of his masters, the Pere Partault, took him to the military school of Brienne.
Every virgater or holder of a bovate has to send a labourer to do work on the lord's farm for some days in the week.
It must be borne in mind in the case of heavy charges, such as four or five days' week-work, that only one labourer from the whole holding is meant, while generally there were several men living on every holding - otherwise the service of five days would be impossible to perform.
The principal of these was ploughing the fields belonging to the lord, and for such ploughing the peasant had not only to appear personally as a labourer, but to bring his oxen and plough, or rather to join with his oxen and plough in the work imposed on the village: the heavy, costly plough with a team of eight oxen had to be made up by several peasants contributing their beasts and implements towards its composition.
The hired labourer suffers from the " truck " system, taking his pay in board and living, in goods, in trade on his employer's credit at the village store; the independent farmer suffers in his turn from unlimited credit at the same store, where he secures everything on the credit of his future crops; and if he is reduced to borrow money, he secures it by vesting the title to his property temporarily in his creditor.
Their father was a riverside labourer, who lodged during the week in Oporto, but went home for Sunday.
1827), was the son of a labourer; he is the author of a grimly realistic story, His Life.
The condition of the Chilean labourer has been much improved since then, however, and Chile no longer suffers so serious a loss of A.
Ricardo's theory of distribution has been briefly enunciated as follows: "(I) The demand for food determines the margin of cultivation; (2) this margin determines rent; (3) the amount necessary to maintain the labourer determines wages; (4) the difference between the amount produced by a given quantity of labour at the margin and the wages of that labour determines profit."
The idea of the active capitalist having any duties towards his employes never seems to occur to him; the labourer is, in fact, merely an instrument in the hands of the capitalist, a pawn in the game he plays.
The average rate of pay to an agricultural labourer is about threepence a day in addition to food, which may cost another penny a day.
To £2 a week, who is frequently a total abstainer, and a labourer of inferior capacity and character earning 15s.