The principal seat of the Tochari and the Kushan dynasty seems to have been Bactria; but they always maintained the eastern parts of modern Afghanistan and Baluchistan, while the western regions (Areia, i.e.
Another native empire, known as Gupta, rose on the ruins of the Kushan kingdom, and embraced nearly the whole peninsula, but it broke up in the 5th century, partly owing to the attacks of new northern invaders, the Huns.
Many of his coins bear the Nandi bull (Siva's emblem), and the king's name is preceded by the title sahi (shah), which had previously been used by the Kushan dynasty.
Some authorities do not accept the list of Kushan kings as given above, and think that Kanishka must be placed before Christ and perhaps as early as 58 B.C.: also that there was another king with a name something like Vasushka before or after Huvishka.
Further, it is probably in the mixture of Greek, Persian and Indian deities which characterizes the pantheon of the Kushan kings that are to be sought many of the features found in Mahayanist Buddhism and Hinduism (as distinguished from the earlier Brahmanism).
Thus Paonano Pao Kanhpki Kopano is to be read as something like Shdhandn Shdh Kanishki Koshan: Kanishka the Kushan, king of kings.
This Persian title became in later times the special designation of the Kushan kings and is curiously parallel to the use of Arabic and Persian titles (padishah, sultan, &c.) by the Ottoman Turks.
The country was converted to Buddhism and probably ruled by Indo-Scythian or Kushan kings.
Case their power, if it lasted so long, must have been swept away by the Kushan conquest of Northern India.
The ruling dynasty had the name Kushan (Kushana), by which they are called on their coins and in the Persian sources.
In the 3rd century the Kushan dynasty began to decay; about A.D.
Most of the small principalities of the Tochari or Kushan became subject to them.
Smith, "The Kushan or Indo-Scythian Period of Indian History," Journal of the R.
Near the Christian era the chief of one of these, which was called Kushan, subdued the rest, and extended his conquests over the countries south of the Hindu Kush, including Sind as well as Afghanistan, thus establishing a great dominion, of which we hear from Greek writers as Indo-Scythia.
The Kushan dynasty, who conquered the Kabul valley, annihilating what remained there of the Greek dominion, and swept away the petty Indo - Greek and IndoParthian principalities on the Indus.
The most celebrated of the Kushan kings, however, was Kanishka, whose date is still a matter of controversy.
The later Guptas were overwhelmed (c. 470) by the White Huns, or Ephthalites, who after breaking the power of Persia and assailing the Kushan kingdom of Kabul, had poured into India, conquered Sind, and established their rule as far south as the Nerbudda.
(438457), who once more revived the persecutions of the Christians and the Jews, a short conflict with Rome again ensued (441): while at the same time war prevailed in the east against the remnants of the Kushan Empire and the tribe of Kidarites, also named Runs.
The history of the century and a half that follows is very obscure; short-lived Saka dynasties succeeded one another until, about 388, the country was conquered by the Guptas of Magadha, who kept a precarious tenure of it till about 470, when their empire was destroyed by the White Huns, or Ephthalites, who, after breaking the power of Persia and assailing the Kushan kingdom of Kabul, poured into India, conquered Sind, and established their dominion as far south as the Nerbudda.