Of tion to observe the whole of the Mosaic law,"and" outran the Old Testament monotheism by a barren monarchian.- ism that denied the divinity of Christ "(Kurtz, Church History, i.
Thus when in the ante-Nicene age the doctrine of the Trinity was under discussion, dynamic Monarchianism " regarded Christ as a mere man, who, like the prophets, though in a much higher measure, had been endued with divine wisdom and power"; modal Monarchianism saw in the Logos dwelling in Christ "only a mode of the activity of the Father"; Patripassianism identified the Logos with the Father; and Sabellianism regarded Father, Son and Spirit as "the roles which the God who manifests Himself in the world assumes in succession" (Kurtz, Church History, i.
Eutyches on the contrary "taught not only that after His incarnation Christ had only one nature, but also that the body of Christ as the body of God is not of like substance with our own" (Kurtz, Church History, i.
Is destined for all men, but man must make himself worthy of it by honest striving after virtue" (Kurtz, Church History, i.
As the bishops were not zealous enough in enforcing penal laws against heretics, the Tribunal of the Inquisition was founded in 1232 by Gregory IX., and was entrusted to the Dominicans who "as Domini canes subjected to the most cruel tortures all on whom the suspicion of heresy fell, and all the resolute were handed over to the civil authorities, who readily undertook their execution" (Kurtz, Church History, ii.
But after the establishment of the Inquisition" heresy and sorcery were regarded as correlates, like two agencies resting on and serviceable to the demoniacal powers, and were therefore treated in the same way as offences to be punished with torture and the stake "(Kurtz, Church History, ii.
JOHANN HEINRICH KURTZ (1809-1890), German Lutheran theologian, was born at Montjoie near Aix la Chapelle on the 13th of December 1809, and was educated at Halle and Bonn.
Kurtz was a prolific writer, and many of his books, especially the Lehrbuch der heiligen Geschichte (1843), became very popular.
Kurtz, Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte, ed, N.
4 " Their zeal and success," to quote the words of Kurtz, " are witnessed to by the fact that at the beginning of the 8th century, throughout all the district of the Rhine, as well as Hesse, Thuringia, Bavaria and Alemannia, we find a network of flourishing churches bearing the impress of Celtic institutions."