During this period he made a second excursion to Babylon, and in 1820 undertook an extensive tour to Kurdistan - from Bagdad north to Sulimania, eastward to Sinna, then west to Nineveh, and thence down the Tigris to Bagdad.
Was forced to cede Shirvan and Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in 1623.
The southern and south-western face follows the coast closely up the Persian Gulf from the mouth of the Indus, and is formed farther west by the mountain scarp, which, rising in many points to 10,000 ft., flanks the Tigris and the Mesopotamian plains, and extends along Kurdistan and Armenia nearly to the 40th meridian; beyond which it turns along the Taurus range, and the north - eastern angle of the Mediterranean.
The subjugation of such districts could only be by a system of effective military occupation and would be a work of time; but Alexander made a beginning by punitive expeditions, as occasion offered, calculated to reduce the free tribes to temporary quiet; we hear of such expeditions in the case of the Pisidians, the tribes of the Lebanon, the Uxii (in Khuzistan), the Tapyri (in the Elburz), the hill-peoples of Bajaor and Swat, the Cossaei (in Kurdistan); an expedition against the Arabs was in preparation when Alexander died.
Out of a population of 13,241,000 (1896) in Armenia, Kurdistan and Asia Minor, 10,030,000 were returned as Mahommedans, 1,144,000 as Armenians, 1,818,000 as other Christians, and 249,000 as Jews.
On the side of Persia too, where the decisive battle of Shurur (1502) had raised to power Ismail, the first of the modern line of shahs, danger threatened the sultan, and the latter years of his reign were troubled by the spread, under the influence of the new Persian power, of the Shiite doctrine in Kurdistan and Asia Minor.
By the Zagros mountain range in what is now Kurdistan and on the S.
Contract tablets have been found dated in the years of the campaigns against Palestine and Sarlak, king of Gutium or Kurdistan, and copper is mentioned as being brought from Magan or the Sinaitic peninsula.
Nabonidus fled to Babylon, whither he was pursued by Gobryas, the governor of Kurdistan, and on the 16th of Tammuz, two days after the capture of Sippara, " the soldiers of Cyrus entered Babylon without fighting."
Layard remained in the neighbourhood of Mosul, carrying on excavations at Kuyunjik and Nimrud, and investigating the condition of various tribes, until 1847; and, returning to England in 1848, published Nineveh and its Remains: with an Account of a Visit to the Chaldaean Christians of Kurdistan, and the Yezidis, or Devil-worshippers; and an Inquiry into the Manners and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians (2 vols.,1848-1849).
Those who escaped capture by Timur fled to the mountains of Kurdistan, and the community that had played so large a part in Mesopotamian history for a thousand years was thus shattered.
- The Nestorians or East Syrians (Surayi) of Turkey and Persia now inhabit a district bounded by Lake Urmia, or Urumia, on the east, stretching westwards into Kurdistan, to Mosul on the south, and nearly as far as Van on the north.
By the river Aras (Araxes), while it has the Caspian Sea, Gilan and Khamseh (Zenjan) on the E., Kurdistan on the S., and Asiatic Turkey on the W.
YEZIDIS, a sect of devil-worshippers, calling themselves Dasni, who are found in Kurdistan, Armenia and the Caucasus.
Of three named species, one extends from South Russia to Siberia, while two others are respectively from Kurdistan and Afghanistan.
It is the seat of the British consulate for Kurdistan, and there are other European consulates besides an American mission with schools.
Except !in India, where it is controlled by the government, In 1878 seventeen lecture-rooms of the Azhar had 3707 students, of whom only 64 came from Constantinople and the northern parts of the Ottoman Empire, 8 from North Arabia, I from the government of Bagdad, 12 from Kurdistan, and 7 from India with its thirty million Sunnites.
In1870-1871it appeared in a district of Mukri in Persian Kurdistan to the south of Lake Urumiah (far removed from the outbreak of 1863).
In 1878 plague again occurred in Kurdistan in the district of So-uj-Bulak, said by Dr Tholozan to be the same as in the district of Mukri where it occurred in 1870-1871.
In 1880 therefore plague existed or had existed within ten years, in the following parts of the world: (I) Benghazi, Africa; (2) Persian Kurdistan; (3) Irak, on the Tigris and Euphrates; (4) the Asir country, western Arabia; (5) on the lower Volga, Russia; (6) northern Persia and the shores of the Caspian; (7) Kumaon and Gurhwal, India; (8) Yunnan and Pakhoi, China.
KERKUK, or QERQUQ, the chief town of a sanjak in the Mosul vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, situated among the foot hills of the Kurdistan Mountains at an elevation of about 110o ft.
Some of the ranges west of the Central Range, which form the highlands of Kurdistan, Luristan, Bakhtiari and Fars, and are parallel to it, end near the Persian Gulf; others follow the Central Range, and take a direction to the east at some point between Kermgn and the sea on the western frontier of Baluchistan.
The Seafid Rud rises in Persian Kurdistan in about 35 50 N.
The Kali and its smaller sizes, called Kaiicheh (in Europe, rugs), are chiefly made in Ferahan, Sultanabad (Irak), Khorasan, Kurdistan, Karadagh, Yezd, Kerman, and among the nomad tribes of southern Persia.
Tutun is cultivated in Azerbaijan, near Urmia and other places near the Turkish frontier, in Kurdistan, and, since 1875, in the district of Resht,in Gilan.
Among the valuable vegetable products forming articles of export are various gums and dyes, the most important being gum tragacanth, which exudes from the astragalus plant in the hilly region from Kurdistan in the north-west to Kermn in the south-east.
The oak forests of Kurdistan, Luristan and the Bakhtiari district are also being rapidly thinned.
For these and other minor dynasties such as the Hsanwayhids of Kurdistan (c. 9591015) and the Kakwayhids of Kurdistan (1007-1051), see Stockvis, Manuel dhistoire, 1.113 sqq.
The Mozaffarids, who ruled roughly from 1313 to 1399 in Fars, Kerman and Kurdistan, were descended from the Amir Mozaffar, or Muzaffar, who held a post as governor under the Ilkhan ruler.
Zeno states that in the following year Ismail entered upon a new campaign in Kurdistan and Asia Minor, but that he returned to Tabriz without accomplishing his object, having been harassed by the tactics of Ala ud-Daula, a beylerbey, or governor in Armenia and parts of Syria.
In the sequel a kind of desultory warfare appears to have been prosecuted on the Persian side of Kurdistan, and the shah himself came down with an army to Hamadan.
When in 1908 the Turkish Revolution occurred, resulting in the deposition of the Sultan and the victory of Enver Bey's Young Turk party, Kurdistan remained generally loyal to the old regime, and Ibrahim Pasha Milli and Sheikh Said of Sulaimani both declared themselves loyalists.
In 1908 Sheikh Said of Sulaimani was murdered in Mosul, an event which only aggravated matters in southern Kurdistan and excited a sympathy for the family even deeper than had existed before.
Meanwhile southern Kurdistan, led by Sheikh Mahmud, the son of Sheikh Said, continued in a state of rebellion, in which the two most active tribes were the Jaf and the Hamawand.
In the south a small volunteer force of cavalry was eventually raised, but after fighting against the British at Shu`aiba near Basra it returned to Kurdistan owing to the illtreatment it received at the hands of the Turks.
With the preoccupation of the Government in the war, Kurdistan remained for the time being untouched and indifferent.
Throughout central and northern Kurdistan there were in 1919 numbers of Armenians who had lived as refugees among the Kurds.
About this time Russia began to formulate a policy to encourage the Kurdish national movement, for she hoped to use Kurdistan as a counterpoise to Armenia, and when in 1916 Russian forces were in possession of Erzerum and Bitlis, members of the Badr Khan Bey family were appointed as provincial governors in pursuance of the policy.
Further apprehension and unrest were caused in central and northern Kurdistan by the Sykes-Picot agreement, which provisionally assigned the Mosul vilayet to France, a Power regarded by the Kurds as violently pro-Christian.
The British forces, beyond a reconnaissance in April 1917, did not enter Kurdistan till Dec. 1917, when Khaniqin was occupied without opposition from the Kurds.
In the early part of 1918 the desire for autonomy and the favourable attitude of Kurdistan to Great Britain was becoming apparent; at Sairt, in central Kurdistan, the Kurds actually expelled the Kurdish garrison, while leaders throughout the country contrived to get into touch with the British and assure them of their friendly sentiments and desire for autonomy and final independence of Turkey.
While propaganda and counter-propaganda were busy throughout northern and central Kurdistan, in May 1919 Sheikh Mahmud, who conceived that he had received ill-treatment at British hands in his capacity of governor of southern Kurdistan, effected a coup de main by which he filled Sulaimani town with Persian Kurd freebooters.
Since the future status of Kurdistan had not been determined at that time by the League of Nations, those portions of it which fell south of the northern boundary of the Mosul vilayet were directed from Bagdad.
The expedition of Major Noel in 1919 to northern Kurdistan had revealed a very general and genuine desire for separation from Turkey and independence.
When such renunciation takes place, no objection will be raised by the Principal Allied Powers to the voluntary adhesion to such an independent Kurdish State of the Kurds inhabiting that part of Kurdistan which has hitherto been included in the Mosul vilayet."
The greater portion of the province is a lowland region extending inland from the sea to the base of the mountains of the Elburz range and, though the Sefid Rud (White river), which is called Kizil Uzain in its upper course and has its principal sources in the hills of Persian Kurdistan, is the only river of any size, the province is abundantly watered by many streams and an exceptionally great rainfall (in some years 50 in.).
Armenischen Hochlandes (Wien, 1882); Bishop, Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan (Lond., 1891); Bliss, Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities (Lond., 1896); Bryce, Transcaucasia and Ararat (4th ed., Lond., 1896); De Coursous, La Rebellion armenienne (Paris, 1895); Lepsius, Armenia and Europe (Lond., 1897); Murray, Handbook for Asia Minor (Lond., 1895); Parly.
(1896); Tozer, Turkish Armenia and Eastern Asia Minor (Lond., 1881); Cholet, Armenie, Kurdistan, et Mesopotamie (1892); Lynch, Armenia (2 vols., 1901).
SULEIMANIEH, or Suleimania, the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet of Mosul, situated on a treeless plain in the Kurdistan Mountains, in the region known as Shehrizor, some 40 or 50 m.