This was the longest siege on record, having been protracted for more than twenty years; but in 1667 it was pressed with renewed vigour by the Turks under the grand vizier Ahmed Kuprili, and the city was at length compelled to surrender (September 1669).
1683), Turkish vizier, surnamed "Merzifunli," was a son of Uruj Bey, a notable Sipahi of Merzifun (Marsovan), and brother-in-law to Ahmed Kuprili, whom he succeeded as grand vizier in 1676, after having for some years held the office of Kaimmakam or locum tenens.
In 1656 Mahommed Kuprili became grand vizier, and by dint of firmness and resolution repaired the falling fortunes of the country.
Ahmed Kuprili attacked the Austrians, at first with success, but was routed by Montecuculi at the battle of St Gotthard Abbey and eventually consented to the treaty of Vasvar (Aug.
A few days later Ahmed Kuprili died.
In this emergency Mustafa Suleiman II., Kuprili (q.v.) was appointed grand vizier (1689).
The successes of the Turks were not maintained, the Austrians inflicting on them a crushing defeat at Slankamen, where Mustafa Kuprili was killed, and driving them from Hungary.
Russia, driven from Azov in 1695, succeeded in capturing it in the following year; Venice continued to press the Turks; in this condition of affairs Hussein Kuprili (q.v.) was called to office; England and Holland urged Turkey to Ibrahim, Ahmed II., 1691-1695.
The humane and tolerant measures provided for in the " nizam-i-jedid," or new regulations for the better treatment of the Christians enacted by Mustafa Kuprili during his grand vizierate (1689-1691), did for a time improve the position of the rayas.
But in the autumn of 1656 a great statesman, Mahommed Kuprili, obtained the supreme control of affairs at Constantinople, and all Europe instantly felt the pressure of the Turk once more.
Kuprili, who had forbidden the Polish enterprise, at once occupied Transylvania, and, in the course of the next five years, no fewer than four princes, three of whom died violent deaths, were forced to accept the kaftan and kalpag of investiture in the camp of the grand vizier.
On the death of Mahommed Kuprili (Oct.
In the following year, thanks to the generalship and heroism of Miklos Zrinyi the younger (q.v.), Kuprili was still less successful.
In the course of that year Kuprili regained Servia and Bulgaria, placed Tok611 on the throne of Transylvania, and on the 6th of October took Belgrade by assault.
KUPRILI, spelt also Kuprili, Koeprulu, Keeprulu, &C., the name of a family of Turkish statesmen.
Mahommed Kuprili (c. 1586-1661) was the grandson of an Albanian who had settled at Kupri in Asia Minor.
The victory of the Venetians off Chios (May 2, 1657) was a severe blow to the Turkish seapower, which Kuprili set himself energetically to repair.
A second battle, fought in the Dardanelles (July 17-19), ended by a lucky shot blowing up the Venetian flag-ship; the losses of the Ottoman fleet were repaired, and in the middle of August Kuprili appeared off Tenedos, which was captured on the 31st and reincorporated permanently in the Turkish empire.
The French ambassador, de la Haye, had delayed bringing him the customary gifts, with the idea that he would, like his predecessors, speedily give place to a new grand vizier; Kuprili was bitterly offended, and, on pretext of an abuse of the immunities of diplomatic correspondence, bastinadoed the ambassador's son and cast him and the ambassador himself into prison.
Had he so desired, Kuprili might have taken advantage of the revolts of the Janissaries to place himself on the throne; instead, he recommended the sultan to appoint his son as his successor, and so founded a dynasty of able statesmen who occupied the grand vizierate almost without interruption for half a century.
Fazil Ahmed Kuprili (1635-1676), son of the preceding, succeeded his father as grand vizier in 1661 (this being the first instance of a son succeeding his father in that office since the time of the Chenderelis).
At first successful, Kuprili was defeated by the Poles under John Sobieski at Khotin and Lemberg; the Turks, however, continued to hold their own, and finally in October 1676 consented to honourable terms of peace by the treaty of Zurawno (October 16, 1676), retaining Kaminiec, Podolia and the greater part of the Ukraine.
Three days later Ahmed Kuprili died.
Zade Mustafa Kuprili (1637-1691), surnamed Fazil, Son of Mahommed Kuprili, became grand vizier to Suleiman II.
Hussein Kuprili (surnamed Amuja-Zade) was the son of Hassan, a younger brother of Mahommed Kuprili.
After this event Hussein Kuprili, surnamed "the Wise," devoted himself to the suppression of the revolts which had broken out in Arabia, Egypt and the Crimea, to the reduction of the Janissaries, and to the institution of administrative and financial reform.
Numan Kuprili, son of Mustafa Fazil, became grand vizier in 1710.
Abdullah Kuprili, a son of Mustafa Fazil Kuprili, was appointed Kaimmakam or locum tenens of the grand vizier in 1703.
His chief merit was to confirm Mustafa Kuprili as grand vizier.