By the Atlantic Ocean, it extends along the coast from the southern bank of the Congo (6° S., 12° E.) to the mouth of the Kunene river (17° 18' S., 1 1° 50' E.).
A large number of rivers make their way westward to the sea; they rise, mostly, in the mountain belt, and are unimportant, the only two of any size being the Kwanza and the Kunene, separately noticed.
In the south towards the Kunene are regions of dense thorn scrub.
Along the upper Kunene and in other districts of the plateau are settlements of Boers, the Boer population being about 2000.
Thus in September 1904 a Portuguese column lost over 300 men killed, including 114 Europeans, in an encounter with the Kunahamas on the Kunene, not far from the German frontier.
The coast line, from the mouth of the Kunene on the west to the delta of the Zambezi on the east, is little indented and contains only two sheltered natural harbours of any size - Saldanha Bay on the west and Delagoa Bay on the east.
Ngami region; (3) the Ova-Herero and Ova-Mpo, confined to German South-West Africa between Walfish Bay and the Kunene River.
Not only did its highlands present many advantages for European settlement; the Kunene river valley, part of which was in German territory, was inhabited by the Ovambo, of whom some 20,000 were recruited by the Germans for work in the Otavi copper-mines.
Of the remaining rivers of the Atlantic basin the Orange, in the extreme south, brings the drainage from the Drakensberg on the opposite side of the continent, while the Kunene, Kwanza, Ogowe and Sanaga drain the west coast highlands of the southern limb; the Volta, Komoe, Bandama, Gambia and Senegal the highlands of the western limb.
From here they are absent up to the Gabun river, where they commence to form a narrow fringe as far as the Kunene river, though often overlain by recent deposits.