The Kuma, the Terek and the Kura, with the Aras, which receives the waters of Lake Gok-cha, belong to Caucasia.'
Its northern boundary is the Kuma-Manych depression, a succession of narrow, halfdesiccated lakes and river-beds, only temporarily filled with water and connecting the Manych, a tributary of the Don, with the Kuma, which flows into the Caspian.
(i.) The plains of Northern Caucasia, which include most of the provinces of Kuban and Terek and of the government of Stavropol, slope gently downwards from the foot of the Caucasus range towards the Kuma-Manych depression.
In the main island the black bear (kuma, Ursusjaponicus) alone has its habitation, but the island of Yezo has the great brown bear (called shi-guma, oki-kuma or aka-kuma), the grisly of North America.
The eastern stream dies away in the sandy steppe about 25 miles from the Caspian, though it is said sometimes to reach the Kuma through the Huiduk, a tributary of the Kuma.
The western shore, from the delta of the Volga to the mouth of the Kuma, a distance of 170 m., is gashed by thousands of narrow channels or lagoons, termed limans, from 12 to 30 m.
(2) South of the line joining the Bay of Kuma with the Manghishlak peninsula, in 44° 10' N.
The Tatars of Caucasia, who inhabit the upper Kuban, the steppes of the lower Kuma and the Kura, and the Aras, number about 1,350,000.
Of these (4) the Nogais on the Kuma show traces of an intimate mixture with Kalmucks.
The Kuma, which alone pursues an independent course through the steppes, farther north than the v.
Koenig, " Der Nordfuss des Daghestan and das vorlagernde Tiefland bis zur Kuma " (Erganzungsheft No.