It was also the view universally taken by the German governments which supported the Kulturkampf in a greater or less degree.
It was recognized and protected first in Bavaria, thanks to the minister Freiherr Johann von Lutz, then in Saxony, Baden, Wurttemberg, Prussia, where it was the pretext for, if not the cause of, the Kulturkampf, and finally in Switzerland, especially at Geneva.
Leader of the Fortschrittspartei, and the expression Kulturkampf had, it is believed, its origin in one of his electoral manifestoes.
Upon the outbreak of the Prussian Kulturkampf the Left had pressed the Right to introduce an Italian counterpart to the Prussian May laws, especially as the attitude of Thiers and the hostility of the French Clericals obviated the need for sparing French susceptibilities.
His policy towards all governments outside Italy was to support them wherever they represented social order; and it was with difficulty that he persuaded French Catholics to be united in defence of the republic. The German Kulturkampf was ended by his exertions.
The " Kulturkampf " raged in Baden, as in the rest of Germany; and here as elsewhere the government encouraged the formation of Old Catholic communities.
In the Kulturkampf he took an active part on the ultramontane side.
126) he declares that the Kulturkampf was mainly initiated by him as a Polish question.
The chancellor never realized the gravity of the onslaught which, with his Kulturkampf, he was making upon the conscience and liberty of his Catholic fellow citizens.
Owing to these circumstances, the rise and further development of the Kulturkampf were viewed in Jesuit and Vatican circles with feelings of the utmost complacency.
That the Kulturkampf had followed so rapidly upon the war was the greatest piece of good fortune that could have befallen the Holy See.
The war demanded both in Germany and France the sacrifice of all available energy and public spirit; while the Kulturkampf, by bringing into relief the question of the external existence of the Church, thrust all internal dogmatic interests and problems completely into the background.
Thus we find that the bitter years of the Kulturkampf extricated the Vatican from one of the most difficult situations in which it had ever been placed.
(For the Kulturkampf see further Germany: History.) The documents of the Vatican Council which have been published since 1870 leave no room for doubt that the proclamation of Papal Infallibility was intended to be followed by a.
Their hostility was increased by the Kulturkampf, due to the promulgation in 1870 of the dogma of papal infallibility.
Concessions were made to them in the matter of schools, and ill 1891 a Pole, Florian von Stablewski (1841-1906), who had taken a prominent part in the Kulturkampf, was accepted by the Prussian government as archbishop of PosenGnesen.
Thiswasfollowedbythemeasures to which the name Kulturkampf really applied(an expression used first by Virchow to imply that it was a struggle of principle between the teaching of the Church and that of modern society).
In 1876, however, the party in Prussi; reunited on a programme-which demanded the maintenance of the Christian character of the schools, cessation of the Kulturkampf, limitation of economic liberty, and repression of social democracy, and this was accepted also by the Conservatives in the Reichstag.
Among the numerous orders he received we may mention that he was the first Protestant on whom the pope bestowed the order of Christ; this was done after the cessation of the Kulturkampf and the reference of the dispute with Spain concerning the Caroline Islands to the arbitration of the pope.
A year later, under the ministry of Falk, it developed into what the great scientist, Rudolf Virchow, called a Kulturkampf, or conflict of civilizations.
He had quarrelled with Austria; Russia was persecuting its Catholic subjects; France was under the spell of Gambetta and his doctrine that clericalism was the enemy; Spain and Belgium followed France; even Switzerland was waging a Kulturkampf on a small scale.
He was the warmest opponent of the State in the Kulturkampf provoked by Prince Bismarck after the publication of the Vatican decrees, and was largely instrumental in compelling that statesman to retract the pledge he had rashly given, never to "go to Canossa."
By this, the real Kulturkampf, the attempt of the state to control the intellect and faith of the clergy, ceased.