20 a N., by China (Dzungaria, Kulja, Aksu and Kashgaria) on the E.
The Dzungarian Ala-tau Mountains, which separate it from Kulja, extend south-west towards the river Ili, with an average height of 6000 ft.
The most important river is the Ili, which enters the province from Kulja and drains it for 250 m.
From thence they returned late in the 18th century to the reoccupation of their old ground in Kulja under the Chinese.
Situated at the intersection of two roads - from Kulja to Tashkent, and from Semipalatinsk to Kashgar - Vyernyi carries on an active trade in wheat, rice, corn, tea, oil and tobacco.
The dynasty of the Jagatai Khans collapsed in 1572 by the dismemberment of the country between rival representatives; and soon after two powerful Khoja factions, the White and Black Mountaineers (Ak and Kara Taghluk), arose, whose dissensions and warfares, with the intervention of the Kalmucks of Dzungaria, fill up the history till 1759, when a Chinese army from Ili (Kulja) invaded the country, and, after perpetrating wholesale massacres, finally consolidated their authority by settling therein Chinese emigrants, together with a Manchu garrison.
KULJA (Chinese, Ili-ho), a territory in north-west China; bounded, according to the treaty of St Petersburg of 1881, on the W.
It flows through Kulja, its valley reaching a width of 50 m.
Apricots, peaches, pears and some vines are grown, as also some cotton-trees near the town of Kulja, where the average yearly temperature is 48°.
The Taranchis from East Turkestan represent about 40 of the population; about 40,000 of them left Kulja when the Russian troops evacuated the territory, and the Chinese government sent some 8000 families from different towns of Kashgaria to take their place.
Excellent beds of coal are found in different places, especially about Kulja, but the fairly rich copper ores and silver ores have ceased to be worked.
The latter (Old Kulja) 14 on the Ili river.
The houses of Kulja are almost all clay-built and flat-roofed, and except in the special Chinese quarter in the eastern end of the town only a few public buildings show the influence of Chinese architecture.
New Kulja, Manchu Kulja, or Ili, which lies lower down the valley on the same side of the stream, has been a pile of ruins since the terrible massacre of all its inhabitants by the insurgent Dungans in 1868.
Later the Kulja territory became a dependency of Dzungaria.
Jenghiz Khan conquered Kulja in the 13th century, and the Mongol Khans resided in the valley of the Ili.
During the insurrection of 1864 the Dungans and the Taranchis formed here the Taranchi sultanate, and this led to the occupation of Kulja by the Russians in 1871.
It is admirably situated as a trade centre and serves as a depot for the silk from Chehkiang and Szech`uen, the tea from Hu-peh and Ho-nan, and the sugar from Szech`uen destined for the markets of Kan-suh, Turkestan, Kulja and Russia.