Kugler, Albert von Aachen (Stuttgart, 1885); M.
The genuineness of the letter (on which, by the way, depends the story of Godfrey's agreement with Dagobert) has been impeached by Prutz and Kugler, and doubted by Rohricht.
The date of the redaction (which was probably made by some learned burgess) may well have been the reign of Baldwin III., as Kugler suggests: he was the first native king, and a king learned in the law; but Beugnot would refer the assizes to the years immediately preceding Saladin's capture of Jerusalem.
His view of the value of Albert of Aix, and his account of the First Crusade, have been generally followed (Kugler alone having attempted, to some extent, to rehabilitate Albert of Aix); and thus von Sybel's work may be said to mark a revolution in the history of the First Crusade, when its legendary features were stripped away, and its real progress was first properly discovered.
If we are to follow von Sybel rather than Kugler, this saga of the First Crusade found one of its earliest expressions (c. 1120) in the prose work of Albert of Aix (Historia Hierosolymitana) - genuine saga in its 1 His somewhat legendary treatise, De liberatione civitatum Orientis, was only composed about 1155.
Kugler, however, regards Albert as a copyist, somewhat in the manner of Tudebod, of an unknown writer of value, who belonged to the Lotharingian ranks during the Crusade, and settled in the kingdom of Jerusalem afterwards (see Kugler, Albert von Aachen, Stuttgart, 1885).
Anna's narrative both furnishes a useful corrective of 1 Von Sybel's view must be modified by that of Kugler, to which a scholar like Hagenmeyer has to some extent given his adhesion (cf.
His work is usefully supplemented by the narrative (La Prise de Constantinople) of On the bibliography of the Second Crusade see Kugler, Studien zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzuges (Stuttgart, 1866).
Finally reference may be made to the works of Kugler and Klimke above mentioned, and to J.
One of the most perfect examples of early Christian pictorial decoration, the socalled " Dispute with the Doctors," in the catacomb of Calixtus, the " antique style of beauty " of which is noticed by Kugler, has thus suffered irreparable mutilation, the whole of the lower part of the picture having been destroyed by the excavation of a fresh grave-recess (Bottari, vol.
Kugler, Analekten zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzugs (Tubingen, 1878, 1883).
Von Kugler, Bohemund and Tancred (Tubingen, 1862); while L.
Von Kugler, Geschichte der Kreuzziige (1880); C. R.
Janicke (Halle, 1873-82); Ranke and Kugler, Beschreibung and Geschichte der Schlosskirche zu Quedlinburg (Berlin, 1838); Lorenz, Alt - Quedlinburg,1485-1698(Halle, 1900); and Huchs, Fiihrer durch Quedlinburg.
In 18 3 0 Protestant missionary enterprise was begun by Samuel Gobat and Christian Kugler, who were sent out by the Church Missionary Society, and were well received by the ras of Tigre.
Mr Kugler died soon after his arrival, and his place was subsequently supplied by Mr C. W.