Under the second caliph Omar (634-644) the Persians were defeated at Kadesiya (Kadessia), and Irak was completely subdued and the new cities of Kuf a and Basra were ',For the general history of the succeeding period see Caliphate; Egypt: History, §" Mahommedan."
On the 8th of Dhu'l-Hijja Hosain set out from Mecca with all his family, expecting to be received with enthusiasm by the citizens of Kuf a, but on his arrival at Kerbela west of the Euphrates, he was confronted by an army sent by Obaidallah under the command of Omar, son of the famous Sa`d b.
But he was detained a whole year in the former country, by a rising of the Shiites in Kuf a, who were still in mourning for Hosain and had formed an army which called itself "the army of the penitent."
Ibn Zobair's representative in Kuf a was compelled to flee, and all those who had participated in the battle of Kerbela were put to death.
Damascus, Kuf a and Basra will attract the flower of all the Moslem provinces, and thus that great intellectual, literary and scientific movement, which reached its apogee under the first Abbasid Caliphs at Bagdad, steadily becomes more marked.
When Abdalmalik, after a stay of forty days, returned from Irak to Syria, he left two Omayyad princes as his vicegerents in Kuf a and Basra.
Omar, his appointed successor, was sent secretly to Kuf a, where he seized on Khalid unawares.
Reinforced by many Kharijites out of the northern provinces, he marched against Kuf a.
The governor of Kuf a, `Isa b.
At Kuf a a certain Ibn Tabataba placed an army in the field under Abul-Saraya, who had been a captain in the army of Harthama.
Ali soon afterwards made Kuf a his capital.
The Persians (who were mostly Shiites) under a Moslem officer named Mokhtar (Mukhtar), whom they regarded as their mahdi, vainly attempted to assert, their independence in Kuf a, but were soon defeated.
C. 819), Arabic historian, was born in Kuf a, but spent much of his life in Bagdad.