Of the numerous books on the Russian revolutionary movement, besides those of " Stepniak," Kropotkin, and other revolutionary writers, the following may be mentioned: C. A.
Kropotkin, in Mem.
Fraser, The Real Siberia (London, 1902); P. Kropotkin, Orographie de la Siberie (Brussels, 1904); P. Leroy-Beaulieu, La Renovation de l'Asie centrale (Paris, 1900); J.
PETER ALEXEIVICH KROPOTKIN, Prince (1842-), Russian geographer, author and revolutionary, was born at Moscow in 1842.
His father, Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, belonged to the old Russian nobility; his mother, the daughter of a general in the Russian army, had remarkable literary and liberal tastes.
At the age of fifteen Prince Peter Kropotkin, who had been designed by his father for the army, entered the Corps of Pages at St Petersburg (1857).
Before he left Moscow Prince Kropotkin had developed an interest in the condition of the Russian peasantry, and this interest increased as he grew older.
The years1857-1861witnessed a rich growth in the intellectual forces of Russia, and Kropotkin came under the influence of the new Liberal-revolutionary literature, which indeed largely expressed his own aspirations.
Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he had not the means to enter the St Petersburg University, he elected to join a Siberian Cossack regiment in the recently annexed Amur district, where there were prospects of administrative work.
Opportunities for administrative work, however, were scanty, and in 1864 Kropotkin accepted charge of a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and shortly afterwards was attached to another expedition which proceeded up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria.
Real administrative reforms in Siberia now induced Kropotkin to devote himself almost entirely to scientific exploration, in which he continued to be highly successful.
The general conclusions are ably summed up by P. Kropotkin in the September number of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society for 1898.
(1896); Kropotkin, "Old Beds of the Oxus," Jour.
(1881) Kropotkin was expelled from Switzerland by the Swiss government, and after a short stay at Thonon (Savoy) went to London, where he remained for nearly a year, returning to Thonon towards the end of 1882.