He collaborated in the Jahrbiicher fiir Wissenschaftliche Kritik from its foundation in 1827 until the publication was stopped in 1846.
Elster, Beitrage zur Kritik des Lohengrin (Halle, 1884), and R.
The body would thus be not the cause of our thinking, but merely a condition restrictive thereof, and, although essential to our sensuous and animal consciousness, it may be regarded as an impeder of our pure spiritual life " (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, and ed., p. 809).
Krebs, Zur Kritik Alberts von Aachen (Munster, 1881); B.
Peter, Zur Kritik der Quellen der dlteren rOmischen Geschichte (1879); L.
Franke in two articles in the Journal of the Pali Text Society for 1903, and in his Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali Grammatik.
Franke, Geschichte and Kritik der einheimischen Pali-Grammatik and Lexicographic, and Pali and Sanskrit (Strassburg, 1902); D.
Bartsch, Beitrcige zur Geschichte and Kritik der Kudrun (1865); H.
Ausfeld, Zur Kritik des griechischen Alexanderromans (Bruchsal, 1894); Plutarch, Alexander, 52-55; Arrian, Anab.
To this was appended a critical dissertation on the historians who had dealt with the period (Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtschreiber), which, showing as it did how untrustworthy was much of traditional history, was to be for modern history as epoch-marking as the critical work of Niebuhr had been in ancient history.
Holtzmann, Kritik der Epheserand Kolosserbriefe (1872), and F.
Having become a convert to Roman Catholicism about 1 599, he obtained the favour of Pope Clement VIII., and, even 1 Kritik (Trans.
The Kritik der reinen Vernunft), as distinguished from the "Practical Reason" (praktische Vernunft) which is specially concerned with the performance of particular actions.
In his last work, Zur Kritik der neuesten Sprachforschung (1885), he attacks the views of the "new" school of philology.
Von Ranke, Zur Kritik frankisch-deutscher Reichsannalisten (Berlin, 1854); W.
In 1846 he published his contributions to the criticism of the gospels (Beitrdge zur Evangelien Kritik, pt.
Ebrard's Wissenschaftliche Kritik der Evangelischen Geschichte (1842).
His chief works are Philosophie als Denken der Welt gem[iss dem Princip des kleinsten Kraftmasses (1876) and the Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (1888-1890).
Like Mach, he started from the principle of economy of thinking, and in the Kritik endeavoured to explain pure experience in relation to knowledge and environment.
In the Kalligone (1800), work directed against Kant's Kritik der Urteilskraft, Herder argues for the close connexion of the beautiful and the good.
One of the most remarkable periodicals of this class was the Jahrbucher fur wissenschaftliche Kritik (1827-1846), first published by Cotta.
At a somewhat earlier date commenced a long series of weekly and monthly periodicals of a more solid character, of which the following list indicates the more important in chronological order: Die Grenzboten (1862), weekly; the Deutsches Museum (1851-1857), of Prutz and Frenzel; Berliner Revue (1855-1873); Westermanns Monatshefte (1856), monthly; Unsere Zeit (1857-1891), beginning as a kind of supplement to Brockhaus's Conversationslexikon; Preussische Jahrbucher (1858), monthly; Deutsches Magazin (1861-1863); Die Gegenwart (1873), weekly; Konservative Monatsschrift (1873), preceded by the Volksblatt fur Stadt and Land (1843) Deutsche Rundschau (1874), fortnightly, conducted upon the method of the Revue des deux mondes; Deutsche Revue (1876), monthly; Nord and Sud (1877), monthly; Das Echo (1882), weekly; Die Zukunft (1882), weekly; Die neue Zeit (1883), weekly; Reclams Universum (1884), weekly; Velhagen and Klasings Monatshefte (1889), monthly; Die deutsche Rundschau (1890), monthly; Die Wahrheit (1893-1897); Kritik (1894-1902); Die Umschau (1897), weekly; Das literarische Echo (1898), fortnightly; Kynast (1898-1899), known later as Deutsche Zeitschrift (1899-1903) and Iduna (1903-1906); Der Turmer (1898), monthly; Die Warte (1900), weekly; Deutschland (1902-1907); Deutsche Monatsschrift (1902-1907); Hochland (1903), monthly; Charon (1904), monthly; Suddeutsche Monatshefte (1904); Der Deutsche (1905-1908); Deutsche Kultur (1905-1908); Arena (1906), monthly; Das Blaubuch (1906), weekly; Eckart (1906), monthly; Die Standarte (1906), weekly; Meirz (1907), fortnightly; Morgen (1907), weekly; Neue Revue (1907), weekly; Internationale Wochenschrift fur Wissenschaft, Kunst, and Technik (1907), weekly supplement to the Minchener allgemeine Zeitung; Wissen (1907), weekly; Unsere Zeit (1907), monthly; Hyperion (1908), bi-monthly; Xenien (1908), monthly; Das neue Jahrhundert (1909), monthly; Die Tat (1909), monthly.
In more modern times appeared Tidsskrift for Litteratur og Kritik (1832-1842, 1843); Maanedsskrift for Litteratur (1829-1838); Nord og Syd (1848-1849) of Goldschmidt, succeeded by Ude og Hjemme, and the Dansk Maanedsskrift (1858) of Steenstrup, with signed historical and literary articles.
His chief works were Uber die von der neuesten Philosophie geforderte Trennung der Moral von der Religion (1804); Einleitung in das Evangelium Johannis (1806); and Institutiones theologicae dogmaticae (1815), to which W Steiger's Kritik des Rationalismus in Wegscheider' s Dogmatik (1830) was a reply.
Von Ranke, Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtsschreiber (Leipzig, 1874), and Cirot, Etudes sur les historiographes espagnols; Mariana, historien (Bordeaux, 1905).
Philosophical: Kritik der Schleiermacherschen Glaubenslehre (1836); Psychologie oder Wissenschaft vorn subjektiven Geist (1837; 3rd ed., 1863); Kritische Erlduterungen des Hegelschen Systems (1840); Vorlesungen 'fiber Schelling (1842); System der Wissenschaft (1850); Meine Reform der Hegelschen Philosophie (1852); Wissenschaft der logischen Idee (1858-59), with a supplement (Epilegomena, 1862); Hegels Naturphilosophie and die Bearbeitung derselben durch Vera (1868); Erlduterungen - zu Hegels Encyklopddie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (1871).
His criticism of Wolff, which is generally based on sound sense, had much influence upon Kant at the time when his system was forming; and his ethical doctrines are mentioned with respect in the Kritik of Practical Reason.
An abridgment of the Kritik der Urtheilskraft was begun, but was left unfinished.
Such was the origin of the work, written in four weeks, the Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung (Essay towards a Critique of all Revelation).
In Kantian terminology Dialektik is the name of that portion of the Kritik d.
In spite of the defects of Kant's statement - to which it is necessary to return - the place of the concepts and ideals of the mind and the synthetic organizing 1 Kritik d.
Returning to Heidelberg he became Privatdozent in theology in 1829, and in 1831 published his Begriff der Kritik am Allen Testamente praktisch erartert, a study of Old Testament criticism in which he explained the critical principles of the grammatico-historical school, and his Des Propheten Jonas Orakel uber Moab, an exposition of the 1 5th and 16th chapters of the book of Isaiah attributed by him to the prophet Jonah mentioned in 2 Kings xiv.
72, as well as a work on the Pauline epistles, Zur Kritik Paulinischer Briefe (1870), on the Moabite Stone, Die Inschrift des Mescha (1870), and on Assyrian, Sprache u.
Als empirische Wissenschaft (2 vols., Leipzig, 1855); Darstellung and Kritik der Beweise fur das Dasein Gottes (Heidelberg, 1840); Beitrcige zur Psych.
Weizsacker's other works include Zur Kritik des Barnabasbriefs (1863) and Ferdinand Christian Baur (1892).
It was almost a natural consequence that Fichte never succeeded in amalgamating with his own system the aesthetic view of nature to which the Kritik of Judgment had pointed as an essential component in any complete philosophy.
Philosophic (1796), containing an interpretation of the Kantian Kritik in the manner of Salomon Maimon.
The accounts of Mosheim, Lardner, Walch and Schrockh, as well as the monograph by Trechsel, Ueber Kanon, Kritik and Exegese der Manichder (1832), may also be mentioned as still useful.
In the preface to the second edition of the Kritik he says that it was necessary to limit speculative reason to a knowledge of phenomena, in order to allow practical reason to proceed from morality to the assumption of God, freedom, and immortality, existing beyond phenomena: " Ich musste also das Wissen aufheben, urn zum Glauben Platz zu machen."
Thus the complete metaphysical idealism of Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre formed out of the incomplete metaphysical idealism of Kant's Kritik, is the theor y on its epistemological side that the Ego posits the non-Ego as a thing in itself, and yet as only a thing existing for it as its own noumenon, and on its metaphysical side that in consequence all reality is the Ego and its own determinations, which are objective, or valid for all, as determinations, not of you or of me, but of the consciousness common to all of us, the pure or absolute Ego.
The Kritik and the Wissenschaftslehre belonged to the revolutionary epoch of the " Rights of Man," and produced as great a revolution in thought as the French Revolution did in fact.
But his main reliance is on the passage in the Kritik, where Kant, speaking of the Cartesian difficulty of communication between body and soul, suggests that, however body and soul appear to be different in the phenomena of outer and inner sense, what lies as thing in itself at the basis of the phenomena of both may perhaps be not so heterogeneous (ungleichartig) after all.
In his first philosophical treatise, Philosophie als Denken der Welt gemdss dem Princip des kleinsten Kraftmaasses, Prolegomena zu einer Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (1876), he based his views on the principle of least action, contending that, as in Nature the force which produces a change is the least that can be, so in mind belief tends in the easiest direction.
Afterwards, in his Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (1888-1890), Avenarius aimed at giving a description of pure experience which he identified with the natural view of the world held by all unprejudiced persons.
At the same time, in spite of his sympathy with the whole development of idealism since Kant, which leads him to reject the thing in itself, to modify a priorism, and to stop at transcendent " ideals," without postulates of practical reason, he nevertheless has so much sympathy with Kant's Kritik as on its theories of sense and understanding to build up a system of phenomenalism, according to which knowledge begins and ends with ideas, and finally on its theory of pure reason to accord to reason a power of logically forming an " ideal " of God as ground of the moral " ideal " of humanity - though without any power of logically inferring any corresponding reality.
405); and in the Transcendental Dialectic, which forms the last part of Kant's Kritik, the noumenon becomes the object of an intuitive understanding " whose thought," says Caird, " is one with the existence of the objects it knows" (ibid.
Fichte's " Wissenschaftslehre," he said, is a completely untenable system, and a metaphysics of fruitless apices, in which he disclaimed any participation; his own Kritik he refused to regard as a propaedeutic to be construed by the Fichtian or any other standpoint, declaring that it is to be understood according to the letter; and he went so far as to assert that his own critical philosophy is so satisfactory to the reason, theoretical and practical, as to be incapable of improvement, and for all future ages indispensable for the highest ends of humanity.
Rejecting everything in the Kritik which savoured of the " metempirical," he yet sympathized so far with Hegel's noumenalism as to accept the identification of cause and effect, though he interpreted the hypothesis phenomenalistically by saying that cause and effect are two aspects of the same phenomenon.
Paracelsus (London, 1887); Schubert and Sudhoff, Paracelsus-Forschungen (Frankfurt a.M., 1887-1889); Sudhoff, Versuch einer Kritik der Echtheit der Paracelsischen Schriften (Berlin, 1894); Waite, The Hermetic and Alchemical Writings of Paracelsus (London, 1894).