2, 5 0 9,559 8222; A more recent calculation by Kriimmel gives the total area as 2,967,570 sq.
The later expedition of the " Pola " discovered the " Rhodes Deep " (36° 5' N., 28° 36' E.), with a maximum depth of 2110 fathoms: this deep is closed to the south-east by a ridge running south-east, over which the depth is 1050 fathoms. Off the coast of Syria the " Pola "obtained four soundings of more than 1100 fathoms, and between Cyprus and the coast of Asia Minor only two over 550 fathoms. Murray gives the following figures for the areas and volumes of the Mediterranean at different depths: which gives a mean depth over all of 768 fathoms. The following table is due to Karstens: Kriimmel gives the total volume of the basin as 4,249,020 cubic kilometres or 1,019,400 cubic statute miles, and the mean depth as 782 fathoms. (See Ocean.) Meteorology.
Kriimmel has calculated the mean depth to be 2010 fathoms (12,060 ft.), while the mean elevation of the surface of the continents above sea-level is only 2300 ft.
Calculating from sheet A I of the Prince of Monaco's Atlas of Ocean Depths,' Kriimmel obtained a mean angle of slope of 0° 2 7 ' 44" or an average fall of i in 124 for the North Atlantic between o° and 47° N., the enclosed seas being left out of account.
Littoral Deposits (between high andSands, gravels, muds, &c. low-water marks) Kriimmel prefers to simplify this by grouping the deposits in a single category arranged according to their position into: (a) Littoral (including Murray and Renard's littoral and shallow water deposits [II.
The eupelagic deposits are subdivided by Kriimmel into two main groups; (a) epilophic,' including the pteropod, globigerina and diatom oozes occurring on the rises and ridges and in the less deep troughs.
The total areas occupied by the various deposits according to the latest measurements of Kriimmel are as follows: - Area of Submarine Deposits.
Sarasin and longer series of experiments by Tornde and Kriimmel this relation is shown to be so close that the salinity of a sample can be ascertained by determining the index of refraction.
Luksch found the disk visible as a rule to from 22 to 27 fathoms, and off the Syrian coast even to 33 fathoms. In the open Atlantic there are `great differences in transparency; Kriimmel observed a 6 ft.
The surface tension, on the other hand, is greater than that of pure water and increases with the salinity, according to Kriimmel, in the manner shown by the equation a=77.09+o 0221 S at o° C., where a is the coefficient of surface tension and S the salinity in parts per thousand.
Kriimmel calculates that the mean temperature of the whole ocean surface is 63.3° F., while the mean sea-level temperature of the whole layer of air at the surface of the earth is given by Hann as 57.8 ° F.
Sir John Murray calculates that at least 80% of the water in the ocean has a temperature always less than 40 F., and a recent calculation by Kriimmel gave in fact a mean temperature of 39° F.