Enough, however, remains to show that the scheme was a combination of such a stone kraal as that at Nanatali with the plan of a fort like those found about Inyanga.
The "Acropolis" is in some ways more remarkable than the great kraal which has just been described.
The principles of construction, the use of stone and cement are the same as in the "elliptical" kraal; there is no definite plan, the shape and arrangement of the enclosures being determined solely by the natural features of the ground.
Between this and the "elliptical" kraal are the "Valley Ruins," consisting of smaller buildings which may have been the dwellings of those traders who bartered the gold brought in from distant mines.
The Romans celebrated the birthday of a town and of its genius, just as they celebrated that of a man; and a snake was a frequent form for this kind of demon; when we compare with this the South African belief that the snakes which are in the neighbourhood of the kraal are the incarnations of the ancestors of the residents, it seems probable that some similar idea lay at the bottom of the Roman belief; to this day in European folklore the house snake or toad, which lives in the cellar, is regarded as the "life index" or other self of the father of the house; the death of one involves the death of the other, according to popular belief.
Three miles from Morija is Matsieng, the kraal of the paramount chief Lerothodi (who died in August 1905).
Farewell, Fynn and the others went to the royal kraal of Chaka, and, having cured him of a wound and made him various presents, obtained a document, dated the 7th of August 1824, ceding to " F.
He went thence to Dingaan's kraal with the object of securing a formal cession of territory to the Dutch farmers.
Owen, a missionary then living at Dingaan's kraal, a deed of cession was drawn up in English and signed by Dingaan and Retief on the 4th of February 1838.
(This memorable victory is annually commemorated by the Boers as Dingaan's Day, while the Umslatos, which ran red with the blood of the slain, was renamed Blood river.) Dingaan fled, the victorious Boers entered the royal kraal, gave decent burial to the skeletons of Retief and his party, and regarded themselves as now undisputed masters of Natal.
The remnants of the Bavenda retreated north to the Waterberg and Zoutpansberg, while Mosilikatze made his chief kraal at Mosega, not far from the site of the town of Zeerust.
The kraal is under the immediate rule of its headman, who is a patriarch responsible for the good behaviour of all its members.
Over the headman, whose authority may extend to more than one kraal, is the tribal chief, and above the tribal chief was the king, whose authority is now exercised by a British commissioner.
The royal kraal for a considerable period was at Ulundi, in the valley of the White Umfolosi.
The last king to occupy it was Cetywayo; Dinizulu's kraal was farther north near the Ndwandwe magistracy.
The king at Umgungindhlovu, the royal kraal on the White Umfolosi, " surrounded by a large number of chiefs and about 8000 or 9000 armed men, observing a state and ceremony in our introduction little expected."
Before this embassy started, news came that Chaka had been murdered (23rd of September 1828) at a military kraal on the Umvote about fifty miles from Port Natal.
Owen, of the Church Missionary Society, to reside at his great kraal, and Owen was with the king when in November 1837 he received Pieter Retief, the leader of the first party of Boer immigrants to enter Natal.
After the defeat Dingaan set fire to the royal kraal (Umgungindhlovu) and for a time took refuge in the bush; on the Boers recrossing the Tugela he established himself at Ulundi at a little distance from his former capital.
A collision very soon took place; Usibepu's forces were victorious, and on the 22nd of July 1883, led by a troop of mounted whites, he made a sudden descent upon Cetywayo's kraal at Ulundi, which he destroyed, massacring such of the inmates of both sexes as could not save themselves by flight.
A Zulu kraal having been raided, the Zulu retaliated and, surrounding a small Boer commando, succeeded in killing every member of it.
ULUNDI (Zulu for "high place"), the royal kraal of Cetywayo, situated in the Mahlabatini district of Zululand, about 3 m.
About a mile from the kraal on the 4th of July 1879 a Zulu army some 20,000 strong was totally defeated by Lord Chelmsford.
After the fight the royal kraal was burned.
On the 1st of September following, at the site of the ruined kraal, Sir Garnet (afterwards Lord) Wolseley announced the partition of Zululand into thirteen petty chieftainships.
The royal kraal was again destroyed and Ulundi ceased to be a rallying point.
Taungs has some 22,000 inhabitants, being the chief kraal of the Batlapin tribe.
Cetywayo was reinstalled on the 29th of January 1883 by Shepstone, but his enemies, headed by Usibepu, attacked him within a week, and after a struggle of nearly a year's duration he was defeated and his kraal destroyed.