The chief first-class fortresses of Russia are Warsaw and Novogeorgievsk in Poland, and Brest-Litovsk and Kovno in Lithuania.
The same is true of the plateaus of Livonia, " Wendish Switzerland," and the government of Kovno, which do not exceed moo ft.
Source, and steamers ply as far as Kovno; it is connected by the Oginsky canal with the Dnieper.
Isolated black-earth islands, though less fertile, occur also in Courland and Kovno, in the OkaVolga-Kama depression, on the slopes of the Urals, and in a few patches in the N.
In Kovno, Vilna, Mogilev, Grodno, Volhynia, Podolia, Minsk, Vitebsk, Kiev, Bessarabia and Kherson, they constitute, on the average, 12 to 172% of the population, while in the cities and towns of these governments they reach 30 to 59% of the population.
The Lithuanians prevail in Kovno, Vilna and Suwalki; and the Letts, who are, however, more scattered, are chiefly concentrated in Vitebsk, Courland and Livonia.
Governments of Kovno, Vitebsk, Vilna, Mogilev, Minsk and Grodno the climate is more temperate, but agriculture is more backward than in the Baltic provinces.
It consisted of two thousand delegates who demanded autonomy for the four governments of Vilna, Kovno, Grodno and Suvalki under a Diet at Vilna to be elected by universal, direct, equal and secret franchise.
In the third Duma the five delegates allotted to the non-Russian population of Vilna government were all Poles who joined the Polish party; in Kovno government three delegates were Lithuanians, one was a Pole and one a Jew.
Although Kovno itself was evacuated in June 1919, and shortly afterwards southern and eastern Lithuania, the area Mitau - Shavli - Taurogen remained in their hands until Dec. 13 of that year.
Owing to this menace of the enemy and disputes over very urgent questions the Provisional National Assembly was elected with difficulty, but in session at Kaunas (Kovno) from Jan.
Under these circumstances the Bolshevist advance reached its culminating point in May 1919, when the Soviet armies occupied Telshi and Shavli in the north and Olita in the south, thus threatening Kovno itself.
Of these only 1,844,000 residents of Kovno are fully under State control plus from 33 to 50% of the 615,000 persons inhabiting Suvalki province.
Kovno and Suvalki provinces Roman Catholics make up 75.2% of the population, Jews 12.5%, Orthodox 8.9% and Protestants and Calvinists 3.5%.
In the provinces of Vilna, Kovno and Suvalki 71.4% of the population belong to the rural class, industry and commerce absorbing 12.8%.
Lithuania is essentially an agricultural country in which the soil is richest in the old Kovno Government.
The towns in order of importance are in political Lithuania: Kovno (Kaunas) with about 60,000 inhabitants, Ponevyez with 20,000, Shavli (Siauliai) with 8,146, Vilkomierz with 8,000.
The only first-class roads are: Kovno-VilkomierzDvinsk; Kovno-Mariampol-Suvalki; Mitau-Shavli-Tilsit.
Roads were purposely neglected under the Russian regime in the frontier area, Kovno itself being then a first-class fortress.
Kovno, Russia (Government) >>
Double lines are: Wirballen-Kovno-Koszedari; Janov-Shavli; Koszedari-Jewie (to Vilna).
As far as Kovno and thence to the Baltic from 185 to 650 yards.
The Vilya is navigable front its mouth at Kovno to Janov (40 kilometres).
The Niaviaza is navigable from its mouth, northwest of Kovno, to Bobri (25 kilometres).
He rode across one of the swaying pontoon bridges to the farther side, turned sharply to the left, and galloped in the direction of Kovno, preceded by enraptured, mounted chasseurs of the Guard who, breathless with delight, galloped ahead to clear a path for him through the troops.