Korean agriculture suffers from infamous roads, the want of the exchange of seed, and the insecurity of the gains of labour.
By both learned and popular belief in Korea Ki-tze is recognized as the founder of Korean social order, and is greatly reverenced.
Small in stature, with a well-knit frame, the cheekbones prominent, the face generally round, the nose and neck short, a marked tendency to prognathism, the chest broad and well developed, the trunk long, the hands small and delicate this Malay type is found in nearly all the islands along the east coast of the Asiatic continent as well as in southern China and in the extreme south-west of Korean peninsula.
These eXist in the Korean language also, but not in any other tongue.
The real beginnings of the study of painting and sculpture in their higher branches must be dated from the introduction of Buddhism from China in the middle of the 6th century, and for three centuries after this event there is evidence that the practice of the arts was carried on mainly by or under the instruction of Korean and Chinese immigrants.
The ceramic art in Satsuma owed much to the aid of a number of Korean experts who settled there after the return of the Japanese forces from Korea.
Turkish, classical Chinese, and Korean versions have been made by the American and British societies jointly.
Korean soil consists largely of light sandy loam, disintegrated lava, and rich, stoneless alluvium, from 3 to 1 0 ft.
The scenery among them is justly celebrated, more especially in the neighbourhood of Haich`eng, Siu-yen and the Korean Gate.
Branches were promoted (a) from Mukden to Antung on the Yalu, to connect with the Korean system, and (b) from Kwang-cheng-tsze to Kirin.
Betweei this coast and the southern extremity of the Korean peninsula an situated the islands of Iki and Tsushima, the latter being onl~ 30 m.
Physical Characteristics.The best authorities are agreed that the Japanese people do not differ physically from their Korean and Chinese neighbors as much as the inhabitants of northern Europe differ from those of southern Europe.
The first and most important is the Manchu-Korean type; that is to say, the type which prevails in north China and in Korea.
The most plausible hypothesis is that men of this type are descendants of Korean colonists who, in prehistoric times, settled in the province of Izumo, on the west coast of Japan, having made their way thither from the Korean peninsula by the island of Oki, being carried by the cold current which flows along the eastern coast of Korea.
It is not very frequently found in Japan, perhaps because, under favorable social conditions, it tends to pass into the Manchu-Korean type.
Carried northward by the warm current known as the Kuro Shiwo, the Malays seem to have landed in KiUshithe most southeFly of the main Japanese islandswhence they ultimately pushed northward and conquered their Manchu-Korean predecessors, the Izumo colonists.
But such traces of prehistoric letters as are supposed to have been found seem to be corruptions of the Korean alphabet rather than independent symbols.
The oldest existiog work of this period is a mural decoration in the hail of the temple of Horyu-ji, Nara, attributed to a Korean priest named Donchfl, who lived in Japan in the 6th century; and this painting, in spite of the destructive effects of time and exposure, shows traces of the same power of line, color and composition that stamps the best of the later examples of Buddhist art.
The most perfect of the ancient bronzes is the great image of Bhaicha-djyaguru in the temple of Yakushi-ji, Nara, attributed to a Korean monk of the 7th century, named Giflgi.
The colossal Nara Daibutsu (Vairocana) at Tdai-ji, cast in 749 by a workman of Korean descent, is the largest of the great bronzes in Japan, but ranks far below the Yakushi-ji image in artistic qualities.
The third clearly differentiated epoch was inaugurated by the discovery of true kaolin at Izumi-yama in Hizen, the discoverer being one of the Korean potters who came to Japan in the train of Hideyoshis generals returning from the invasion of Korea, and the date of the discovery being about 1605.
It was first produced by a Korean who emigrated to Japan in the early part of the 16th century.
In its early days the ceramic industry of this province owed something to the assistance of Korean experts who settled there after the expedition of 1592.
The Yatsushiro faience is a production of the province of Higo, where a number of Korean potters settled at the close of the ~ hi 17th century.
Characteristics of a Korean original are unmistakably preserved.
But owing to the thaw and the subsequent break-up of the miserable Korean roads, six weeks passed before the columns of the army (Guard, and and 12th divisions), strung out along the " Mandarin road " to a total depth of six days' march, closed upon the head at Wiju, the frontier town on the Yalu.
QUELPART (CHAI-Ju), an island to the south of Korea, used as a Korean penal settlement.
The estimated population is loo,000, Korean by race, language and costume.
Among the Chinese the name of the silkworm is " si, " Korean " soi "; to the ancient Greeks it became known as Q?p, the nation whence it came was to them ?r?pE S and the fibre itself o ptKc v, whence the Latin sericum, the French soie, the German Seide and the English silk.
At about the same time Japanese immigration to Hawaii fell off upon the opening of new fields for colonization by the Russo-Japanese War, and Korean immigration was promoted by employers on the islands.
The corresponding figures for Koreans during the same period are as follows: number leaving between the 14th of June 1900 and the 31st of December 1905, 721, or 6673 less than the Korean immigrants for the same period.
In Korea, the " Hermit Nation," or as the Koreans prefer to say, " The Land of the Morning Calm," Christianity was introduced at the end of the 18th century by some members of the Korean legation at Pekin who had met Roman Catholic missionaries.
Sheng-king is well supplied with railways, Mukden being in direct railway connexion with Peking, Niu-chwang, Port Arthur and Tairen as well as with the Korean railways, and with Europe and Vladivostock by the trans-Siberian line.
The antiquities are the Bell Tower, with a huge bronze bell dated 1468, a marble pagoda elaborately carved, but not of Korean workmanship, seven centuries old, and a "Turtle-Stone" of about the same date.
Korean harbours, except two or three which are closed by drift ice for some weeks in winter, are ice-free.
It possesses the stately remains of the palace of the Korean kings of the Wang dynasty, is a great centre of the grain trade and the sole centre of the ginseng manufacture, makes wooden shoes, coarse pottery and fine matting, and manufactures with sesamum oil the stout oiled paper for which Korea is famous.
With the exceptions of Kang-hwa, Chong-ju, Tung-nai, Fusan, and Won-san, it is very doubtful if any other Korean towns reach a population of 15,000.
The actual antiquities of Korea are dolmens, sepulchral pottery, and Korean and Japanese fortifications.
The origin of the Korean people is unknown.
The concessionnaires regard Korean labour as docile and intelligent.
Any Korean can become a landowner by reclaiming and cultivating unoccupied crown land for three years free of taxation, after which he pays taxes annually.
Paper and ginseng are the only manufactured articles on the list of Korean exports.
An imperial edict of the 20th of May 1904 annulled all Korean treaties with Russia.
After the opening of certain Korean ports to foreign trade, the customs were placed under the management of European commissioners nominated by Sir Robert Hart from Peking.
Japanese cotton yarns are imported to be woven into a strong cloth on Korean hand-looms. Beans and peas, rice, cowhides, and ginseng are the chief exports, apart from gold.
A railway from Seoul to Wiju was planned under French engineers, but the work was started by the Korean government.
This line also, however, was taken over by the Japanese military authorities, and the first trains ran through early in 1905, in which year Japan obtained control of the whole of the Korean internal communications.
Under a treaty signed at Seoul on the 17th of November 1905, Japan directed the external relations of Korea, and Japanese diplomatic and consular representatives took charge of Korean subjects and interests in foreign countries.
In administrative reforms the Korean government followed his guidance; laws could not be enacted nor administrative measures undertaken without his consent; the appointment and dismissal of high officials, and the engagement of foreigners in government employ, were subject to his pleasure.
The jurisdiction of the consular courts was abolished but Japan guaranteed the continuance of the existing Korean tariff for ten years.
Down to 1910 the sum expended by Japan on Korean reforms was estimated to approach fifteen millions sterling.
Hospitals, orphanages, schools and an admirable college in Seoul have been founded, along with tri-lingual (Chinese, Korean and English) printing-presses; religious, historical and scientific works and much of the Bible have been translated into En-mun, and periodicals of an enlightened nature in the Korean script are also circulated.
In Seoul there were established an imperial English school with two foreign teachers, a reorganized Confucian college, a normal college under a very efficient foreign principal, Japanese, Chinese, Russian and French schools, chiefly linguistic, several Korean primary schools, mission boarding-schools, and the Pai Chai College connected with the American Methodist Episcopal Church, under imperial patronage, and subsidized by government, in which a liberal education of a high class was given and En-mun receives much attention.
In the primary schools boys learn arithmetic, and geography and Korean history are taught, with the outlines of the governmental systems of other civilized countries.
By both Korean and Chinese tradition Ki-tze--a councillor of the last sovereign of the 3rd Chinese dynasty, a sage, and the reputed author of parts of the famous Chinese classic, the Shu-King--is represented as entering Korea in 1122 B.C. with several thousand Chinese emigrants, who made him their king.
Korean ancient history is far from satisfying the rigid demands of modern criticism, but it appears that Ki-tze's dynasty ruled the peninsula until the 4th century B.C., from which period until the 10th century A.D.
The port and fishing privileges of Fusan remained in Japanese possession, a heavy tribute was exacted, and until 1790 the Korean king stood in humiliating relations towards Japan.
In 1884 at an official banquet the leaders of the progressive party assassinated six leading Korean statesmen, and the intrigues in Korea of the banished or escaped conspirators created difficulties which were very slow to subside.
Then Japan made three sensible proposals for Korean reform, to be undertaken jointly by herself and China.
The Japanese victories resulted for Korea in the solemn renunciation of Chinese suzerainty by the Korean king, the substitution of Japanese for Chinese influence, the introduction of many important reforms under Japanese advisers, and of checks on the absolutism of the throne.
On the 8th of October 1895 the Tai-won-Kun, with Korean troops, aided by Japanese troops under the orders of Viscount Miura, the Japanese minister, captured the palace, assassinated the queen, and made a prisoner of the king, who, however, four months later, escaped to the Russian legation, where he remained till the spring of 1897.
In 1907 a Korean delegacy, headed by Prince Yong, a member of the imperial family, was sent out to lay before the Hague conference of that year, and before all the principal governments, a protest against the treatment of Korea by Japan.
A system of parallel ranges of mountains, culminating in the Chinese Chang pai Shan, " the long white mountains," on the Korean frontier, runs in a north-easterly direction from the shores of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
If the theories hitherto held with regard to the origin of the Japanese people be correct, close relationship should exist between the Japanese and the Korean tongues, and possibly between the Japanese and the Chinese.