C. typica and the Kordofan G.
A railway, built in 1909-1910, connects Khartum, Wad Medani and Sennar with Kordofan, the White Nile being bridged near Goz Abu Guma.
This resulted in the dismissal of Suliman Niazi and the appointment of Hicks as commander-in-chief of an expeditionary force to Kordofan with orders to crush the mandi, who in January 1883 had captured El Obeid, the capital of that province.
Hicks, aware of the worthlessness of his force for the purpose contemplated, stated his opinion that it would be best to "wait for Kordofan to settle itself" (telegram of the 5th of August).
On the 10th the force left the Nile at Duem and struck inland across the almost waterless wastes of Kordofan for Obeid.
This is due to the large number of slaves drawn by Arab dealers from the Nuba negroes of Kordofan, who appear to constitute the original stock of the Nubian races (but see Hamitic Races).
These negro Nobatae, originally from Kordofan, as is now evident, had advanced to the Great Oasis (Kharga) in Upper Egypt, whence they passed into the Nile valley between the cataracts.
Although a native of Dongola, the mandi, Mahommed Ahmed, found his chief support, not among his countrymen, but among the more recently converted Kordofan negroes and the nomad Arabs and Beja.
Of the Nilotic as distinguished from the Kordofan branch of the Nuba language there are three principal dialects current from Assuan along the Nile southwards to Meroc, as under: I.
The northern and southern varieties are closely related to each other, differing considerably from the central, which shows more marked affinities with the Kordofan Nuba, possibly because the Saidokki people are later arrivals from Kordofan.
Riippell, Reisen in Nubien, Kordofan, &c. (Frankfort a.
Several roads from Kordofan converge on the Nile at this point, and near the station is the residence of the mek, or king, of the Shilluk tribe, whose designation of the post was adopted when it was decided to abandon the use of Fashoda.
EL OBEID, chief town of the mudiria (province) of Kordofan, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and 230 m.
Above the sea, at the northern foot of Jebel Kordofan, in 13° i 1' N.
El Obeid, which appears to be a place of considerable antiquity and the ancient capital of the country, was garrisoned by the Egyptians on their conquest of Kordofan in 1821.
During the Mandia the city was destroyed and deserted, and when Kordofan passed, in 1899, into the possession of the Anglo-Egyptian authorities nothing was left of El Obeid but a part of the old government offices.
(See KORDOFAN, and SUDAN: Anglo-Egyptian.)
In 1910 railway communication between the town and Kordofan was established.
The ibis is chiefly an inhabitant of the Nile basin from Dongola southward, as well as of Kordofan and Sennar; whence about midsummer it moves northwards to Egypt.
In the Eastern Sudan a promising beginning has been made, but the regions south of Kordofan have hardly been touched.
KORDOFAN, a country of north-east Africa, forming a mudiria (province) of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
The greater part of Kordofan consists of undulating plains, riverless, barren, monotonous, with an average altitude of 1500 ft.
In the west, isolated peaks, such as Jebel Abu Senum and Jebel Kordofan, rise from 150 to 600 ft.
The south-western part of the country, a vast and almost level plain, is known as Dar Homr. A granitic sand with abundance of mica and feldspar forms the upper stratum throughout the greater part of Kordofan; but an admixture of clay, which is observable in the north, becomes strongly marked in the south, where there are also stretches of black vegetable mould.
As there is no highland area draining into Kordofan, the underground reservoirs are dependent on the local rainfall, and a large number of the wells are dry during many months.
Of Kordofan, date, dom and other palms grow.
Kordofan are not known elsewhere in the eastern Sudan.
The population of Kordofan was officially estimated in 1903 to be 550,000.
The principal Baggara tribes are the Hawazma, Meseria, Kenana, Habbania, and Homr. The Homr are said to have entered Kordofan from Wadai about the end of the 18th century and to have come from North Africa.
Of the early history of Kordofan there is little record.
About the beginning of the 16th century Funj from Sennar settled in the country; towards the end of that century Kordofan was conquered by Suleiman Solon, sultan of Darfur.
In 1821 Kordofan was conquered by Mahommed Bey the defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt.
It was in Kordofan that Hicks Pasha and his army, sent to crush the revolt, were annihilated (Nov.
The Baggara of Kordofan from that time onward were the chief supporters of the mandi, and his successor, the khalifa Abdullah, was a Baggara.
In Kordofan in 1899 the khalif a met his death, the country having already passed into the hands of the new Sudan government.
MacMichael, Notes on the History of Kordofan before the Egyptian Conquest (Cairo, 1907); John Petherick, Egypt, the Sudan, and Central Africa (London, 1861); Ignaz Pallme, Beschreibung von Kordofan (Stuttgart, 1843; trans.
Travels in Kordofan, London, 1844); Major H.
Prout, General Report on Province of Kordofan (Cairo, 1877); Ernst Marno, Reise in der egypt.
Later in the same year an Egyptian army from Kordofan razed the town to the ground, most of the inhabitants being massacred.
They disappeared in the deserts of Kordofan, where they were destroyed by the Mahdists about 50 m.
This was observed by British officers, from the time of the preliminary operations about Kosha and at the action near Ginnis in December 1885 down to the brilliant operations in the pursuit of the Mahdists on the Blue Nile after the action of Gedaref (subsequent to the battle of Omdurman), and the fighting in Kordofan in 1899, which resulted in the death of the khalifa and his amirs.
Mahommed Bey, the defterdgr, with another force of about the same strength, was then sent by Mehemet Ali against Kordofan with a like result, but not without a hard-fought engagement.
Payara and Birket in Kordofan quickly fell, and a few days before the battle of Tell-el-Kebir was fought, the mahdi, with a large force, was besieging El Obeid.
Colonel Hicks was fully aware of the unfitness of his rabble forces for the contemplated task, and on the 5th of August he telegraphed: I am convinced it would be best to keep the two rivers and province of Sennar, and wait for Kordofan to settle itself.
In October 1886 Wad en Nejumi, the amir who had defeated Hicks Pasha in Kordofan three years before, and led the assault at Khartum when General Gordon.
At this time the power and prestige of the khalifa were at their height: the rebellions in Darfur and Kordofan had been stamped out, the anti-mahdi was dead, and even the dervish defeat by the Abyssinians had been converted by the death of King John and the capture of his body into a success.
Darfur and Kordofan.On the outbreak of the mahdis rebellion Slatin Bey was governor of the province, and when Madibbo, the insurgent sheikh of Rizighat, attacked and occupied Shakka and was following up his success, Slatin twice severely defeated him, and, having concentrated his forces at El Fasher, repulsed the enemy again at Om Shanga.
Osman wad Adam (Ganu), amir of Kordofan, was sent by the khalif a to Karamallas assistance.
In 189f Darfur and Kordofan were again disturbed, and Sultan Abbas succeeded in turning the dervishes out of the Jebel Marra district.
West of the river, in the heart of the Baggara country in Kordofan, and if possible to capture it.