The Koran (Kor'an) is the sacred Book of Islam.
The contents of the different parts of the Koran are extremely varied.
There are Turkish primary and secondary schools in some of the towns; in the village mosques instruction in the Koran is given by the imams, but neither reading nor writing is taught.
It is certain, indeed, that they still retain many Mahommedan customs. They take oaths equally on the Koran or on the Shastras; they employ.
All modern 1 It is useful to compare the critical study of the Koran, where, however, the investigation of its various " revelations " is simpler than that of the biblical " prophecies " on account of the greater wealth of independent historical tradition.
In Bagdad he stayed several years, studying the Koran and other works of Moslem theology, for controversial purposes, arguing with Nestorian Christians, and writing.
It is still used in the service of the synagogue, and the Mahommedans not only add it after reciting the first Sura of the Koran, but also when writing letters, &c., and repeat it three times, of ten with the word Qimtir, as a kind of talisman.
On one occasion, when a dispute arose between two of his own followers as to the true reading of a passage which both had received from the Prophet himself, Mahomet is said to have explained that the Koran was revealed in seven forms.
To the faith of the Moslems, as has been said, the Koran is the word of God, and such also is the claim which the book itself advances.
By the side of the niche was the pulpit (minbar), and sometimes in front of the latter a platform (dikka) raised on columns, from which chapters from the Koran were read to the people.
It appears to be traceable in its Greek dress in writings of the philosopher Democritus and the dramatist Menander; it was certainly known to the author of Tobit and perhaps to the author of Daniel; some would trace its influence in the New Testament, in the parable of the wicked servant and elsewhere; it was known to Mahomet and is referred to in the Koran; it has been included among the tales in the Arabian Nights; and it survives in a good many versions ancient and modern.
Impressed with the perversions and corruptions of popular Hinduism, Ram Mohan Roy investigated the Hindu Shastras, the Koran and the Bible, repudiated the polytheistic worship of the Shastras as false, and inculcated the reformed principles of monotheism as found in the ancient Upanishads of the Vedas.
Greek philosophy, and the interpretation of the Koran; that he was much addicted to worldly pleasures, especially to excessive wine drinking.
He compiled the Koran, instituted the civil list, regulated the military organization.
Moreover, the word of God in the Koran left many practical points undecided, and therefore it was of the highest importance to know exactly how the Prophet had spoken and acted in various circumstances.
The Sunnites, who held by the Koran and tradition) maintained that this should be determined by the choice of the community.
But he was a philosopher as well, and apparently a sceptic. He is said to have rejected the Koran, to have denied the return to God, and to have regarded death as the end of existence.
His book has attained a quasi-canonicity in Islam, being treated almost like the Koran, and to his grave solemn pilgrimages are made, and prayers are believed to be heard there.
As president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Franklin signed a petition to Congress (12th February 1790) for immediate abolition of slavery, and six weeks later in his most brilliant manner parodied the attack on the petition made by James Jackson (1757-1806) of Georgia, taking off Jackson's quotations of Scripture with pretended texts from the Koran cited by a member of the Divan of Algiers in opposition to a petition asking for the prohibition of holding Christians in slavery.
Outwardly they are Mussulmans of the Shiah branch, but most of them show little veneration for either Prophet or Koran, and the religion of some of them seems to be a mixture of Ali-Illahism involving a belief in successive incarnations combined with mysterious, ancient, heathen rites.
Three gods of the inscriptions are named in the Koran - Wadd, Yaghuth and Nasr. In the god name Ta'lab there may be an indication of tree-worship. The many minor deities may be passed over; but we must mention the sanctuary of Riyam, with its images of the sun and moon, and, according to tradition, an oracle.
Among his numerous unpublished manuscripts are a translation of the Koran and a Histoire generale des empereurs tures.
Every word of the Koran was to be taken in a literal sense, but that sense was to be learned from other uses in the Koran itself, not from the meaning in other literature of the time.
How the various pieces of the Koran took literary form is uncertain.
That even long portions of the Koran existed in written form from an early date may be pretty safely inferred from various indications; especially from the fact that in Mecca the Prophet had caused insertions to be made, and pieces to be erased in his previous revelations.
Thus, for example, the Koran contains very different directions, suited to varying circumstances, as to the treatment which idolaters are to receive at the hands of believers.
The same naivete appears in a remark of the Caliph Othman about a doubtful case: " If the Apostle of God were still alive, methinks there had been a Koran passage revealed on this point."
" Omar was many a time of a certain opinion," says one tradition, " and the Koran was then revealed accordingly."
According to Shafi`ite law, such a cadi must be a male, free, adult Moslem, intelligent, of unassailed character, able to see, hear and write, learned in the Koran, the traditions, the Agreement, the differences of the legal schools, acquainted with Arabic grammar and the exegesis of the Koran.
It is doubtless to be regarded as a revival of ancient habits of thought and feeling among a people who had adopted the Koran, not by affinity, but by compulsion.
The typical fighting costume of the Malay is a sleeveless jacket with texts from the Koran written upon it, short tight drawers reaching to the middle of the thigh, and the sarong is then bound tightly around the waist, leaving the hilt of the dagger worn in the girdle exposed to view.
The larger mosques have two imams: one is called (in Arabia and Egypt) the khatib, and he preaches the sermon on Fridays (the Moslem Sabbath); the other, the ratib, reads the Koran, and recites the five daily prayers, standing close to the mihrab, and leading the congregation, who repeat the prayers with him, and closely follow his postures.
The Koran, sacred and secular law, logic, poetry, arithmetic, with some medicine and geography, are the chief subjects of study.
Omar, on hearing the request of his general, is said to have replied that if those books contained the same doctrine with the Koran, they could be of no use, since the Koran contained all necessary truths; but if they contained anything contrary to that book, they ought to be destroyed; and therefore, whatever their contents were, he ordered them to be burnt.
The theoretical absolutism of the sultan had, indeed, always been tempered not only by traditional usage, local privilege, the juridical and spiritual precepts of the Koran and the Sunnet, and their 'Ulema interpreters, and the privy council, but for nearly a century by the direct or indirect pressure of the European powers, and during the reigns of Abd-ul-Aziz and of Abd-ul-Hamid by the growing force of public opinion.
Among its curiosities still extant are two New Testament Codices of the 10th century and two of the 11th; various works by Alphonso the Wise (1252-1284), a Virgil of the 14th century, a Koran of the 15th, &c. Of the Arabic manuscripts which it contained in the 17th century a catalogue was given in J.
Satan, disobeying, was cast out of heaven; hence his ill-will towards Adam (Life of Adam and Eve, ï¿½ï¿½ 13 -17; cp. Koran, xvii.
2 For Mahommedan stories of Solomon, the hoopoe and the queen of Sheba, see the Koran, Sur.
A set of twenty-eight rhymes associated their heliacal risings with the changes of season and the vicissitudes of nomad life; their settings were of meteorological and astrological import; 3 in the Koran (x.
In the same sense the term is used in the Koran of both Adam and David as the vicegerents of God.
In legal matters he belonged first to the Shafi`ite school, but came to adopt the views of the Zahirites, who admitted only the external sense of the Koran and tradition, disallowing the use of analogy (Qiyas) and Taglid (appeal to the authority of an imam), and objecting altogether to the use of individual opinion (Ra`y).
Every sentence of the Koran was to be interpreted in a general and universal sense; the special application to the circumstances of the time it was written was denied.
There was no element of heresy in his creed, which was mainly distinguished by a rigid formalism and strict obedience to the letter of the Koran and the orthodox tradition or Sunna.
And since the use of the Koran in public worship, in schools and otherwise, is much more extensive than, for example, the reading of the Bible in most Christian countries, it has been truly described as the most widely-read book in existence.
But all the greatest of the Hebrew prophets fall back speedily upon the unassuming human " I "; while in the Koran the divine " I " is the stereotyped form of address.
Even in the separate narrations we may observe how readily the Koran passes from one subject to another, how little care is taken to express all the transitions of thought, and.
We are not at liberty, therefore, in every case where the connexion in the Koran is obscure, to say that it is really broken, and set it down as the clumsy patchwork of a later hand.
It is not uncommon for the Koran, after a new subject has been entered on, to return gradually or suddenly to the former theme, - a proof that there at least separation is not to be thought of.
In short, however imperfectly the Koran may have been redacted, in the majority of cases the present suras are identical with the originals.
From the mass of material comprised in the Koran - and the account we have given is far from exhaustive - we should select the histories of the ancient prophets and saints Narratives.
Thus the Koran itself confesses that the unbelievers cast it up as a reproach to the Prophet that God sometimes substituted one verse for another (xvi.