It was the first German colony to dispense (1903-1904) with an imperial subsidy towards its upkeep. Several firms have acquired plantations in which coffee, cocoa, cotton, kola and other tropical products are cultivated.
The chief trade is in, and the principal exports are, palm oil and kernels, rubber, cotton, maize, groundnuts (Arachis), shea-butter from the Bassia parkii (Sapotaceae), fibres of the Raphia vinifera, and the Sansevieria guineensis, indigo, and kola nuts, ebony and other valuable wood.
The kola tree is also indigenous.
Of this class are the swampy plateaus of the Kola peninsula, sloping gently S.
Russia, which is going on from Esthonia and Finland to the Kola peninsula and Novaya Zemlya, at an average rate of about two feet per century.
Boundary is purely conventional: it crosses the peninsula of Kola from the Varanger Fjord to the Gulf of Bothnia; thence it runs to the Kurisches Haff in the southern Baltic, and thence to the mouth of the Danube, taking a great circular sweep to the W.
Of Svyatoi Nos on the Kola peninsula belong to a separate zoological region, connected with, and hardly separable from, that part of the Arctic Ocean which washes the Siberian coast as far as the mouth of the Lena.
Finland and on the Kola peninsula, and the Samoyedes in Archangel and W.
They are: (I) Arabs from Tripoli, who export ostrich feathers, skins and ivory, and bring in burnouses, scents, sweets, tea, sugar, &c.; (2) Salaga merchants who import kola nuts from the hinterland of the Guinea Coast, taking in exchange cloth and live stock and leather and other goods; (3) the Asbenawa traders, who come from the oases of Asben or Air with camels laden with salt and "potash" (i.e.
The best known are Koroko, Kong and Bona, entrepots for the trade of the middle Niger, and Bontuku, on the caravan route to Sokoto and the meeting-place of the merchants from Kong and Timbuktu engaged in the kola-nut trade with Ashanti and the Gold Coast.
Formerly one of the great slave and ivory marts of West Africa, it is now a centre of the kola-nut commerce and a depot for government stores.
The nut of the kola tree is in great demand, and since 1905 many cocoa plantations have been established, especially in the eastern districts.
From the mouth of Kola Bay.
Caffeine (formerly known as theme) is the alkaloid of tea, and is identical with that of coffee, guarana, mate and kola nut.
The southern part, off the Murman coast of the Kola peninsula, is sometimes called the Murman Sea.
Palm-oil, palm kernels, cocoa, copal, copra, Calabar beans, kola-nuts and ivory are the principal exports.
Tobacco and kola nuts are also grown.
The principal articles of this trade are salt, kola nuts, ivory, leather, sodium carbonates and spices.
The kola nut, chewed by almost every native of the country, is brought from west of the Niger, traders from Ashanti, Accra and Yorubaland frequenting the markets of Jegga.
Gum-producing and kola trees are abundant, and there are many fruit trees, the orange and citron growing well in the Susu and Futa Jallon districts.
The principal imports are cotton goods, of which 80% come from Great Britain, rice, kola nuts, chiefly from Liberia, spirits, tobacco, building material, and arms and ammunition, chiefly "trade guns."
- A line drawn from the head of the Gulf of Bothnia to the eastern coast of Lake Ladoga divides Finland into two distinct parts, the lake region and the nearly uninhabited hilly tracts belonging to the Kjolen mountains, to the plateau of the Kola peninsula, and to the slopes of the plateau which separates Finland proper from the White Sea.
Eruptive rocks of Palaeozoic age are met with in the Kola peninsula (nepheline-syenites) and at Kuusamo (syenite).
Alpine plants are not met with in Finland proper, but are represented by from 32 to 64 species in the Kola peninsula.
The kola (Cola acuminata) and the bitter kola (Garcinia cola), the last having a fruit about the size of an apple, with a flavour like that of green coffee, are common.
The wealth of the country consists, however, chiefly in its indigenous trees of economic value - the oil-palm, the kola-nut tree and various kinds of rubber plants, chiefly the Landolphia owariensis.
The oil-palm and kola-nut tree are especially abundant in the Sherbro district and its hinterland, the Mendi country.
Next to palm products the most valuable articles exported are kola-nuts - which go largely to neighbouring French colonies - rubber and ginger.