The order of the Legion of Honor is treated under KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY.
The Norwegian order of knighthood of St Olaf was founded in 1847 by Oscar I., king of Sweden and Norway, in memory of this king.
For the modern order of the Golden Fleece, see Knighthood And Chivalry, section Orders of Knighthood.
It is familiar in the titles, showing the colour of their wands of office, of the gentlemen ushers of the three principal British orders of knighthood, the ushers of the Garter and St Patrick being "Ushers of the Black Rod," and of the Thistle "Green Rod."
But in 1840 the Order was resuscitated in Austria, where it now exists as a semi-religious knighthood, closely connected with the Habsburgs.
In the same year in which the British Association held its first meeting, Brewster received the honour of knighthood and the decoration of the Guelphic order of Hanover.
Having obtained the leave of the British government to accept the prince's offer, he received the honour of knighthood from George III., and during eleven years he remained at Munich as minister of war, minister of police, and grand chamberlain to the elector.
In spite of his doctrinal writings - which at the time made no little noise, so that his Compendium of Dogmatic (1760) was confiscated in Sweden, and the knighthood of the North Star was afterwards given him in reparation - it was the natural side of the Bible that really attracted him, and no man did more to introduce the modern method of studying Hebrew antiquity as an integral part of ancient Eastern life.
As before, the equites wore the narrow, purple-striped tunic, and the gold ring, the latter now being considered the distinctive badge of knighthood., The fourteen rows in the theatre were extended by Augustus to seat's in the circus.
He received the supreme honour of the knighthood of the Annunziata from King Humbert in 1898.
Granted them the honour of being the first to receive knighthood at the coronation; this part of the ceremonies being opened by the herald asking in a loud voice "Is no Dalberg present?"
The grand duke Cosmo I., a genuine statesman, not only restored the university, but instituted the "uffizio dei fossi," or drainage office for the reclamation of marsh lands, and founded the knighthood of St Stephen.
This prince continued the traditions and work of his father in a manner that won the approbation of the local government, and earned for him the distinction of a knighthood of the Order of the Indian Empire and a seat in the legislative council of Bombay.
This incident suggests two reflections - first that raids or attacks in rear of the " centre of operations " are valueless, however daring, and second that had Zasulich, in his determination to be worthy of his knighthood, concentrated for battle, the presence of the Madritov detachment on the field would have prevented the lamentable and costly misunderstandings of the retreat on Hamatan.
In July 1861 he accepted from Lord Palmerston the office of solicitor-general, a knighthood, and a safe seat for the borough of Richmond in Yorkshire, secured for him through the friendly action of Lord Zetland, and thus began the second spell of Palmer's membership of the House of Commons, which continued till his elevation to the woolsack and the peerage.
The same monarch entered Dublin in 1394 with 30,000 bowmen and 4000 cavalry, bringing with him the crown jewels; but after holding a parliament and making much courtly display before the native chieftains, on several of whom he conferred knighthood, he returned to England.
He was given the degree of Doctor of Letters in the university of Calcutta and accepted a knighthood in 1915, but addressed a letter to the Viceroy in 1919, resigning the title as a protest against the methods adopted for the repression of disturbances in the Punjab.
Soon afterwards Brown refused the lieutenant-governorship of Ontario, and on two subsequent occasions the offer of knighthood, devoting himself to the Globe and to a model farm at Bow Park near Brantford.
Caballerius), the knightly class of feudal times, possessing its own code of rules, moral and social (see Knighthood And Chivalry).
For the more important religious as distinguished from the military orders of knighthood or chivalry the reader is referred to the headings ST John Of Jerusalem, Knights Of; Teutonic Knights; and Templars.
" The growth of knighthood " (writes Stubbs) " is a subject on which the greatest obscurity prevails ": and, though J.
The words knight and knighthood are merely the modern forms of the Anglo-Saxon or Old English cniht and cnihthdd.
And it was long after knighthood had acquired its present meaning with us that chivalry was incorporated into our language.
Concerning the origin of knighthood or chivalry as it existed in the middle ages - implying as it did a formal assumption of and initiation into the profession of arms - nothing beyond more or less probable conjecture is possible.
(now Peterborough), was accepted from Selden to Hallam as an historical fact, and knighthood was supposed, not only to have been known among the Anglo-Saxons, but to have had a distinctively religious character which was contemned by the Norman invaders.
Yet the fact that Harold received knighthood from William of Normandy makes it clear either that Harold was not yet a knight, which in the case of so tried a warrior would imply that " dubbing to knighthood " was not yet known in England even under Edward the Confessor, or, as Freeman thinks, that in the middle of the iith century the custom had grown in Normandy into " something of a more special meaning " than it bore in England.
To distinguished soldiers of the cross the honours and benefits of knighthood could hardly be refused on the ground that they did not possess a sufficient property qualification - of which perhaps they had denuded themselves in order to their equipment for the Holy War.
And thus the conception of knighthood as of something distinct from feudalism both as a social condition and a personal dignity arose and rapidly gained ground.
It was then that the analogy was first detected between the order of knighthood and the order of priesthood, and that an actual union of monachism and chivalry was effected by the establishment of the religious orders of which the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitallers were the most eminent examples.
In like manner the squire and the page were both in training for knighthood, but the first had advanced further in the process than the second.
But in the ordinary course of a chivalrous education the successive conditions of page and squire were passed through in boyhood and youth, and the condition of knighthood was reached in early manhood.
Every feudal court and castle was in fact a school of chivalry, and although princes and great personages were rarely actually pages or squires, the moral and physical discipline through which they passed was not in any important particular different from that to which less exalted candidates for knighthood were subjected.'
Two modes of conferring knighthood appear to have prevailed from a very early period in all countries where chivalry was known.
The knights then dressed him in distinctive garments, and they then mounted their horses and rode to the hall where the candidate was to receive knighthood; his future squire was to ride before him bareheaded bearing his sword by the point in its scabbard with his spurs hanging from its hilt.
5 " If we sum up the principal ensigns of knighthood, ancient and modern, we shall find they have been or are a horse, gold ring, shield and lance, a belt and sword, gilt spurs and a gold chain or collar."
Everywhere else dubbing or the accolade seems to have become obsolete, and no other species of knighthood, if knighthood it can be called, is known except that which is dependent on admission to some particular order.
Notwithstanding, however, that simple knighthood has gone out of use abroad, there are innumerable grand crosses, commanders and companions of a formidable assortment of orders in almost every part of the world."
(See the section on " Orders of Knighthood " below.) The United Kingdom has eight orders of knighthood - the Garter, the Thistle, St Patrick, the Bath, the Star of India, St Michael and St George, the Indian Empire and the Royal Victorian Order; and, while the first is undoubtedly the oldest as well as the most illustrious anywhere existing, a fictitious antiquity has been claimed and is even still frequently conceded 8 State Papers, Domestic Series, James the First, lxvii.
And Edward IV., have garters on their left arms. (See further under " Orders of Knighthood " below.) It has been the general opinion, as expressed by Sainte Palaye and Mills, that formerly all knights were qualified to confer knighthood.
1 In several of the writs for distraint of knighthood from Henry III.
2 At all periods the commanders of the royal armies had the power of conferring knighthood; as late as the reign of Elizabeth it was exercised among others by Sir Henry Sidney in 1583, and Robert, earl of Essex, in 1595, while under James I.
An ordinance of 1622, confirmed by a proclamation of 1623, for the registration of knights in the college of arms, is rendered applicable to all who should receive knighthood from either the king or any of his lieutenants.
4 But at present the only subject to whom the right of conferring knighthood belongs is the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and to him it belongs merely by long usage and established custom.
But, by whomsoever conferred, knighthood at one time endowed the recipient with the same status and attributes in every country wherein chivalry was recognized.
5 And, long after the military importance of knighthood had practically disappeared, what may be called its cosmopolitan character was maintained: a knight's title was recognized in all European countries, and not only in that country in which he had received it.
In modern times, however, by certain regulations, made in 1823, and repeated and enlarged in 1855, not only is it provided that the sovereign's permission by royal warrant shall be necessary for the reception by a British subject of any foreign order of knighthood, but further that such permission shall not authorize " the assumption of any style, appellation, rank, precedence, or privilege appertaining to a knight bachelor of the United Kingdom."
6 Since knighthood was accorded either by actual investiture or its equivalent, a counter process of degradation was regarded Degrada- as necessary for the purpose of depriving anybody tion.
It is difficult to describe the true spirit and moral influence of knighthood, if only because the ages in which it flourished differed so widely from our own.
Moreover, many of the noblest precepts of the knightly code were a legacy from earlier ages, and have survived the decay of knighthood just as they will survive all transitory human institutions, forming part of the eternal heritage of the race.
It is not surprising therefore, to find that at least as early as the middle of the 13th century the commercial side of knighthood became very prominent.