The disease has been linked to a variety of disease agents, including parvovirus B19, HIV infection, measles, influenza viruses, rotaviruses, adenoviruses, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
The most common bacteria associated with UTIs in women (including teens) are: Escherichia coli (approximately 80% of cases), Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Proteus species.
Other bacteria that can cause otitis externa include Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and bacteria of the family called Streptococci.
Klebsiella and Proteus sometimes cause urinary tract infections; pneumonia occurs generally in immunocompromised hosts or alcoholics, and ear and sinus infections in immunocompromised hosts.
Other examples of enterobacteria are species of Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Proteus, and Yersinia.
Enterobacteriaceae that have been identified in infants with NEC include Salmonella, E. coli, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter.