In this case the under surface of the kite is made to strike the still air.
The angles made by the kite-like surfaces with the horizon should vary according to circumstances.
The corners of the handkerchief were tied to the extremities of the cross, and when the body of the kite was thus formed, a tail, loop and string were added to it.
If, however, a stiff autumn breeze be blowing, it suffices if the boy who formerly ran when the kite was let go stands still.
Long upheld by a box kite, and, employing a sensitive coherer and telephone as a receiver, he was able, on December 12, 1901, to hear " S " signals on the Morse code, consisting of three dots, which he had arranged should be sent out from Poldhu at stated hours, according to a preconcerted programme, so as to leave no doubt they were electric wave signals sent across the Atlantic and not accidental atmospheric electric disturbances.
After waiting some time for the erection of a spire at Philadelphia, by means of which he hoped to bring down the electricity of a thunderstorm, he conceived the idea of sending up a kite among thunder-clouds.
To keep the silk ribbon dry, he stood within a door, taking care that the twine did not touch the frame of the door; and when the thunder-clouds came over the kite he watched the state of the string.
About the same time that Franklin was making his kite 1 See Sir Oliver Lodge, " Lightning, Lightning Conductors and Lightning Protectors," Journ.
The figure-of-8 and kite-like action of the wing referred to lead us to explain how it happens that the wing, which in many instances is a comparatively small and delicate organ, can yet attack the air with such vigour as to extract from it the recoil necessary to elevate and propel the flying creature.
A familiar illustration of the same principle may be witnessed any day when children are engaged in the pastime of kite-flying.
If two boys attempt to fly a kite in a calm, the one must hold up the kite and let go when the other runs.
In this case the air in rapid motion strikes the under surface of the kite and forces it up. The string and the hand are to the kite what the weight of the flying creature is to the inclined planes formed by its wings.
The natural kite formed by the wing differs from the artificial kite only in this, that the former is capable of being moved in all its parts, and is more or less flexible and elastic, whereas the latter is comparatively rigid.
The flexibility and elasticity of the kite formed by the natural wing are rendered necessary by the fact that the wing, as already stated, is practically hinged at its root and along its anterior margin, an arrangement which necessitates its several parts travelling at different degrees of speed, in proportion as they are removed from the axes of rotation.
30 shows the kite-like action of the wing during the down and up strokes, how the angles made by the wing with the horizon (a, b) vary at every stage of these strokes, and how the wing evades the superimposed air during the up stroke, and seizes the nether air during the down stroke.
The kite-like surfaces and angles made by the wing with the horizon (a, b) during the down strokes are indicated at c d e f g, j k l m, - those made during the up strokes being indicated at g h i.
On the contrary, he will perceive that the under surface of the wing (during the down stroke) invariably looks forwards and forms a true kite with the horizon, the angles made by the kite varying at every part of the down stroke, as shown more particularly at c d e f g, i j k l m of fig.
The cardinal idea was to force the aeroplanes (slightly elevated at their anterior margins) forwards, kite-fashion, by means of powerful vertical screw propellers driven at high speed - the greater the horizontal speed provided by the propellers, the greater, by implication, the lifting capacity of the aerodrome.
Among other members of this order are the eagle, osprey, vulture, buzzard, kite and hawk, with about a dozen species in all.
Of fine sewing cotton has been employed to measure the wind velocity passing over a kite, the tension of the cotton being recorded, and this plan has given satisfactory results.
In the eastern portion of the Coastal Plain Region are the cotton rat, rice-field rat, marsh rabbit, big-eared bat, brown pelican, swallow-tailed kite, black vulture and some rattlesnakes and cotton-mouth moccasin snakes, all of which are common farther south; and there are some turtles and terrapins, and many geese, swans, ducks, and other water-fowl.
Among the birds are the vulture, eagle, falcon, buzzard, kite, lark, nightingale, heron, stork and bustard.
Among birds common in Texas as well as in the other Southern States are the cardinal, golden-fronted woodpecker, Mississippi kite, mourning-dove, and turkey-buzzard.
The famous experiment with the kite, proving lightning an electrical phenomenon, was performed by Franklin in June 1752.
The principal pastimes are gambling, boat-racing, cockand fishfighting and kite-flying, and a kind of football.
The wild cat may yet be found in the Highlands, and the polecat, ermine and pine marten still exist, the golden eagle and the white-tailed eagle haunt the wilder and more remote mountainous districts, while the other large birds of prey, like the osprey and kite, are becoming scarce.
In company with his son, Franklin raised the kite like a common one, in the first thunderstorm, which happened in the month of June 1752.
He also explained that all wings act upon a common principle, and that they present oblique, kite-like surfaces to the air, through which they pass much in the same way that an oar passes through water in sculling.
The wing reverses instantly and acts as a kite during nearly the entire down and up strokes.
It must tread with its wings and rise upon the air as a swimmer upon the water, or as a kite upon the wind.
If, however, the bird is fairly launched in space and a stiff breeze is blowing, all that is required in many instances is to extend the wings at a slight upward angle to the horizon so that the under parts of the wings present kite-like surfaces.
The kite-like surfaces referred to in natural flight are those upon which the constructors of flying machines very properly ground their hopes of ultimate success.