At the head of the learned and scientific societies stands the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1830; the Kisfaludy Society, the Petofi Society, and numerous societies of specialists, as the historical, geographical, &c., with their centre at Budapest.
Still more celebrated were Mihaly Csokonai and Alexander Kisfaludy (q.v.).
The dramatic works of Charles Kisfaludy, brother of Alexander, won him enthusiastic recognition as a regenerator of the drama.
The encouragement of polite literature was more especially the object of the Kisfaludy Society, founded in 1836.4 Polite literature had received a great impulse in the preceding period (1807-1830), but after the formation of the academy and the Kisfaludy society it advanced with accelerated speed towards the point attained by other nations.
Of the many later publications of the Kisfaludy society the most important as regards English literature is the Shakspere Minden Munkdi (Complete Works of Shakespeare), in 19 vols.
Translations from Moliere, Racine, Corneille, Calderon and Moreto have also been issued by the Kisfaludy society.
Of a more distinctly national tendency are the lyrics of John Kriza b and John Erdelyi, but the reputation of the latter was more especially due to his collections of folk-lore made on behalf of the Kisfaludy society.
Among lyricists were: Coloman Toth, who is also the author of several epic and dramatic pieces; John Vajda, whose Kisebb Koltemenyek (Minor Poems), published by the Kisfaludy society in 1872, are partly written in the mode of Heine, and are of a pleasing but melancholy character; Joseph Levay, known also as the translator of Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, Taming of the Shrew and Henry I V.; and Paul Gyulai, who, not only as a faultless lyric and epic poet, but as an impartial critical writer, is highly esteemed, and whose Romhdnyi is justly prized as one of the best Magyar poems that has appeared in modern times.
To these may be added the names of Charles Berecz, Joseph Zalar, Samuel Nyilas, Joseph Vida, Lewis Tolnai, the sentimental Ladislaus Szelestey, and the talented painter Zoltan Balogh, whose romantic poem Alpdri was published in 1871 by the Kisfaludy society.
6 Besides the various translators from the English, as for instance William Gyori, Augustus Greguss, Ladislaus Arany, Sigismond Acs, Stephen Fejes and Eugene Rakosy, who, like those already incidentally mentioned, assisted in the Kisfaludy society's version of Shakespeare's complete works, metrical translations from foreign languages were successfully made by Emil Abranyi, Dr Ignatius Barna, Anthony Varady, Andrew Szabo, Charles Berczy, Julius Greguss, Lewis Doczi, Bela Eredi, Emeric Gaspar and many others.
Of the Hazai nep kOlteszet tdra (Treasury of the Country's Popular Song), commenced in 1866, under the auspices of the Kisfaludy society.
Original romance writing, which may be said to have commenced with Dugonics and Kaman at the close of the 18th, and to have found a representative in Francis Verseghy at the beginning of the 19th century, was afterwards revived by Fay in his Belteky hdz (1832), and by the contributors to certain literary magazines, especially the Aurora, an almanack conducted by Charles Kisfaludy, 1821-1830, and continued by Joseph Bajza to 1837.
Almost simultaneously with the rise of the Kisfaludy society, works of fiction assumed a more vigorous tone, and began to present just claims for literary recognition.
Among authors of other historical or humorous romances and tales which have appeared from time to time are Francis Marton alias Lewis Abonyi, Joseph Gaal, Paul Gyulai, William GyOri, Lazarus Horvath, the short-lived Joseph Irinyi, translator of Uncle Tom's Cabin, Francis Ney, Albert ' D affy, Alexander Vachott and his brother Emeric (Vahot), Charles Szathmary, Desider Margittay, Victor Vajda, Joseph Bodon, Atala Kisfaludy and John Kratky.
The Kisfaludy Society, the great literary association of Hungary, about this time happened to advertise a prize for the best satire on current events.
In February of the following year Arany was elected a member of the Kisfaludy Society.
On the 15th of July 1860 he was elected director of the revived Kisfaludy Society, and went to Pest.
Another society which has done great service for the cultivation of the Hungarian language is the Kisfaludy society, founded in 1836.