Kirchhoff and H.
The first edition, with a full commentary based on scientific principles, was that of Aufrecht and Kirchhoff in 1849-1851, and on this all subsequent interpretations are based (Breal, Paris, 1875; Bucheler, Umbrica, Bonn, 1883, a reprint and enlargement of articles in Fleckeisen's Jahrbuch, 18 75, pp. 127 and 313).
Kirchhoff and R.
Kirchhoff, and Maxwell.
Kirchhoff (Gesammelte effect.
Kirchhoff, Uber die Entstehungszeit des Herodotischen Geschichtswerkes (Berlin, 1878); Adolf Bauer, Herodots Biographie (Vienna, 1878); H.
According to von Helmholtz and Kirchhoff the velocity in a tube should be less than that in free air by a quantity depending on the diameter of the tube, the frequency of the note used, and the viscosity of the gas (Rayleigh, Sound, vol.
§ 347), and Kirchhoff investigated it, taking into account both the viscosity and the heat communication between the air and the walls of the pipe (loc. cit.
The investigations both of Balfour Stewart and of Kirchhoff are based on the idea of an enclosure at uniform temperature and the general results of the reasoning centre in the conclusion that the introduction of any body at the same temperature as the enclosure can make no difference to the streams of radiant energy which we imagine to traverse the enclosure.
This result, which, accepting the possibility of having an absolutely opaque enclosure of uniform temperature, was clearly proved by Balfour Stewart for the total radiation, was further extended by Kirchhoff, who applied it (though not with mathematical rigidity as is sometimes supposed) to the separate wave-lengths.
The interpretation of spectroscopic observation seemed very simple when Kirchhoff and 1 Phil.
It is important to understand that Mach had developed this economical view of thought in 1872, more than ten years before the appearance of his work on the history of mechanics as he tells us in the preface, where he adds that at a later date similar views were expressed by Kirchhoff in his V orlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1874).
Kirchhoff asserted that the whole object of mechanics is " to describe the motions occurring in Nature completely in the simplest manner."
In a word, Mach and Kirchhoff agree that force is not a cause, convert Newtonian reciprocal action into mere interdependency, and, in old terminology, reduce mechanics from a natural philosophy of causes to a natural history of mere facts.
In the case of this one force we know far more than the interdependence supposed by Mach and Kirchhoff; we know bodies with impenetrable force causing one another to keep apart.
Mach had begun to put them forward in 1872, and Kirchhoff in 1874.
James Ward, in Naturalism and Agnosticism (1899), starts from the same phenomenalistic views of Mach and Kirchhoff about mechanics; he proceeds to the hypothesis of duality within experience, which we have traced in James Ward.
Kirchhoff, who rediscovered Rankine's formula (Pogg.
They are not sufficient alone, but give good results when modified, as in the simple and accurate formulae of Rankine, Kirchhoff, L.
A formula of this type was first obtained by Kirchhoff (Pogg.
The formula evidently applies to the vapour-pressure of the pure solvent as a special case, but Kirchhoff himself does not appear to have made this particular application of the formula.
Bunsen and Kirchhoff (Ann., 1860, 113, p. 337), in the spectroscopic examination of the residues obtained on evaporation of water from a mineral spring at Diirkheim, being characterized by two distinctive red lines.
Kirchhoff, Vorlesungen liber Mechanik (Leipzig, 1896); H.
Kirchhoff of Berlin.2 According to Kirchhoff, the Odyssey as we have it is the result of additions made to an original nucleus.
The proof that the scenes in Ithaca are by a later hand than the ancient " Return " is found chiefly in a contradiction discussed by Kirchhoff in his sixth dissertation (pp. 135 sqq., ed.
The first of these representations is evidently natural, considering the twenty eventful years that have passed; but the second, Kirchhoff holds, is the Ulysses of Calypso's 1 On this point see a paper by Professor Packard in the Trans.
The arguments by which Kirchhoff seeks to prove that the stories of books x.-xii.
Kirchhoff argues that the Artacia of the Argonautic story must have been taken from the real Artacia, and the Artacia of the Odyssey again from that of the Argonautic story.
Finally, when Kirchhoff finds traces in books x.-xii.
Inquiries conducted with the refinement which characterizes those of Kirchhoff are always instructive, and his book contains very many just observations; but it is impossible to admit his main conclusions.
Kirchhoff, Die Composition der Odyssee (Berlin, 1869); Volkmann, Geschichte and Kritik der Wolf'schen Prolegomena (Leipzig, 1874); K.
Kirchhoff determined experimentally in a certain case the absolute value of the current induced by one circuit in another, and in the same year Erik Edland (1819-1888) made a series of careful experiments on the induction of electric currents which further established received theories.
As is shown by his verses and sometimes by his prose, his mind was highly imaginative; the poet Coleridge declared that if he "had not been the first chemist, he would have been the first poet 1 Davy's will directed that this service, after Lady Davy's death, should pass to his brother, Dr John Davy, on whose decease, if he had no heirs who could make use of it, it was to be melted and sold, the proceeds going to the Royal Society" to found a medal to be given annually for the most important discovery in chemistry anywhere made in Europe or Anglo-America."The silver produced £736, and the interest on that sum is expended on the Davy medal, which was awarded for the first time in 1877, to Bunsen and Kirchhoff for their discovery of spectrum analysis.
GUSTAV ROBERT KIRCHHOFF (1824-1887), German physicist, was born at Konigsberg (Prussia) on the 12th of March 1824, and was educated at the university of his native town, where he graduated Ph.D.
Kirchhoff in announcing that the lines of the spectrum were characteristic of the chemical substance which emitted them, and in indicating the value of this discovery in chemical analysis.