He was conspicuously successful (1869-1886) in dealing with Indian outbreaks, fighting the Cheyenne, Kiowa and Comanche on Llano Estacado (1875) and the Sioux in Montana (1876), capturing the Nez Perces under Chief Joseph (1877), and defeating the Chiricahua Apaches under Geronimo (1886), and he commanded the United States troops sent to Chicago during the railway riots in 1894.
A sanguinary attack on an Indian camp in Kiowa county in 1864 is known as the Sand Creek Massacre.
About 3000 acres (nearly one-half in the narrow extension in the N.W.) were already irrigated in 1909, and surveys had been made by the Federal Reclamation Service with a view to irrigating about 100,000 acres more-10,000 to 14,000 acres in Beaver and Woodward counties, under the Cimarron project, and 80,000 to ioo,000 acres in Kiowa and Comanche counties, under the Red River project.
The only Indians who are natives of this region are a few members of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache tribes.