KiOto 1498 -.
1596,, - KiOto 2,000
1662 (16/6) - Kioto 5,500 500
Osaka,Kioto and Kobe, and 23/4 million people.
KiOto (Main Island) 57
Kioto 353,139 379,404
Her language is graceful and natural, her sentiments are refined and sober; and, as Mr Aston well says, her story flows on easily from one scene of real life to another, giving us a varied and minutely detailed picture of life and society in KiOto, such as we possess for no other country at the same period.
Undesignedly it conveys a wonderfully realistic picture of aristocratic life and social ethics in KiOto at the beginning of the 11th century.
It came into existence in KiOto and was thence transferred to Yedo (Tokyo), where the greatest of Japanese playwrights, Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1724), and a musician of exceptional talent, Takemoto Gidayu, collaborated to render this puppet drama a highly popular entertainment.
Yedo, the shOLiterature guns capital, displaced KiOto as the centre of literary of the activity.
His notable successors in the same line were two men of KiOto, named Jisho (I6751745) and Kiseki (1666-1716).
OkyO rose into notice about 1775, and a number of pupils flocked to his studio in ShijO Street, KiOto (whence ShijO school).
The gorgeous decoration of the mausoleum of Iyeyasu at NikkO, and of the gateway of the Nishi Hongwan temple at KiOto, are the most striking instances of his handiwork or direction.
All these processes, as well as that of repouss, in which the Japanese have excelled from a remote period, are now practised with the greatest skill in Tokyo, KiOto, Osaka and Kanazawa.
Even in the field of architectural decoration for interiors, tradition tells us scarcely anything about the masters who carved such magnificent works as those seen in the KiOto temples, the Tokugawa mausolea, and some of the old castles.
But in fact the glyptic artists of Tokyo, Osaka and KiOto, though they now devote their chisels chiefly to works of more importance than the netsuke, are in no sense inferior to their predecessors of feudal days, and many beautiful netsuke bearing their signatures are in existence.
In the gth century, after the capital had been established at KiOto, the palace of the sovereigns and the mansions of ministers and nobles were built on a scale of unprecedented grandeur.
Arras of large dimensions, showing remarkable workmanship and grand combinations of colors, is now manufactured in KiOto, the product of years of patient toil on the part of weaver and designer alike.
Kawashima of KiOto has acquired high reputation for work of this kind.
The principal kinds of ware are Hizen, KiOto, Satsuma, Kutani, Owari, Bizen, Takatori, Banko, Izumo and Yatsushiro.
The raku-yaki of KiOto is the parent of all the rest.
In the term Kiyomizu-yaki may be included roughly all the faience of KiOto, with the exception of the three varieties described above.
It was introduced by two potters who had visited Kioto, and there observed the ornate methods so well illustrated in the wales of Awata and Kiyomizu.
Taking the Eiraku porcelains of Kioto as models, Hachiroemon employed red grounds with designs traced on them in gold.
He took for his models the raku faience of KiOto, the masterpieces of Ninsei and Kenzan, the rococc wares of Korea, the enamelled porcelain of China, and the blue-andwhite ware of Delft.
The faience of the Kioto artists never reached quite to the level of the Satsuma in quality of pdte and glowing mellowness of decoration; their materials were slightly inferior.
Seven kilns are devoted, wholly or in part, to the new wares: belonging to Miyagawa ShOzan of Ota, Seiffl YOhei of KiOto, Takemoto Hayata and Kato Tomojiro of Tokyo, Higuchi Haruzane of Hirado, Shida Yasukyo of Kaga and Kato Masukichi of Seto.
Among the seven ceramists here enumerated, Seif of KiOto probably enjoys the highest reputation.
The three Kenzan, of whom the third died in 1820; Ebisei; the four DOhachi, of whom the fourth was still alive in 1909; the Kagiya family, manufacturers of the celebrated KinkOzan ware; Hozan, whose imitations of Delft faience and his pdte-sur-pd~e pieces with fern-scroll decoration remain incomparable; Taizan YOhei, whose ninth descendant of the same name now produces fine specimens of Awata ware for foreign markets; Tanzan YOshitaro and his son Rokuro, to whose credit stands a new departure in the form of faience having p.~te-sur-p&e decoration of lace patterns, diapers and archaic designs executed in low relief with admirable skill and minuteness; the two Bizan, renowned for their representations of richly apparelled figures as decorative motives; Rokubei, who studied painting under Maruyama Okyo and followed the naturalistic style of that great artist; Mokubei, the first really expert manufacturer of translucid porcelain in Kioto; Shuhei, Kintei, and above all, Zengoro HOzen, the celebrated potter of Eiraku waresthese names and many others give to KiOto ceramics an eminence as well as an individuality which few other wares of Japan can boast.
Okamuia Yasutaro, commonly called Shozan, produces specimens which only a very acute connoisseur can distinguish from the work of Nomura Ninsei; Tanzan Rokuros half-tint enamels and soft creamy glazes would have stood high in any epoch; Taizan YOhei produces Awata faience not inferior to that of former days; Kagiya SObei worthily supports the reputation of the KinkOzan ware; Kawamoto Eijiro has made to the order of a well-known KiOto firm many specimens now figuring in foreign collections as old masterpieces; and ItO TOzan succeeds in decorating faience with seven colors sons couverte (black, green, blue, russetred, tea-brown, purple and peach), a feat never before accomplished.
It is therefore an error to assert that KiOto has no longer a title to be called a great ceramic centre.
Seifu YOhei, however, has the special faculty of manufacturing monochromatic and jewelled porcelain and faience, which differ essentially from the traditional Kioto types, their models being taken directly from China.
The KiOto artists process is much easier than that of his rivals, and although his monochromes are often of most pleasing delicacy and fine tone, they do not belong to the same category of technical excellence as the wares they imitate.
Its only notable production of a ceramic character was the work of Miura Kenya (1830-1843), who followed the methods of the celebrated Haritsu (I 6881704) of KiOto in decorating plain or lacquered wood with mosaics of raku faience having colored glazes.
Rare specimens were produced in Satsuma and KiOto, the color employed being chiefly blue, though brown and black were used in very exceptional instantes.
The modern faience of Ito TOzan of KiOto, decorated with color under the glaze, is incomparably more artistic than the Tokyo asahi-yaki, from which, nevertheless, the KiOto master doubtless borrowed some ideas.
It must be acknowledged, however, that the Tokyo artists often devote their skill to purposes of forgery, and that their imitations, especially of old Satsuma-yaki, are sometimes franked by dealers whose standing should forbid such frauds: In this context it may be mentioned that, of late years,decoration of a remarkably microscopic character has been successfully practised in KiOto, Osaka and Kobe, its originator being Meisan of Osaka.
One, headed by Namikawa Yasuyuki of KiOto, took for its objects N the utmost delicacy and perfection of technique, rich ness of decoration, purity of design and harmony of color.
This school may be subdivided, KiOto representing one branch, Nagoya, TOkyO and Yokohama the other.
In the products of the KiOto branch the decoration generally covered the whole surface of the piece; in the products of the other branch the artist aimed rather at pictorial effect, placing the design in a monochromatic field of low tone.
The highway between his stronghold, Kamakura, and the imperial city, KiOto, began in his time to develop features which ultimately entitled it to be called one of the finest roads in the world.
The third class were maintained by a syndicate of 13 merchants as a private enterprise for transmitting letters between the three great cities of KiOto, Osaka and Yedo and intervening places.
Long, connected Osaka and KiOto with Yedo.
D~ constructed ~o join KiOto with Yedo, but follows an sen O inland course through the provinces of Yamashiro, Omi, Mino, Shinshu, KOtzuke and Musashi.
The latter published, in 1870, the first Japanese work on railways, advocating the building of lines from Tokyo to KiOto and Osaka; the former, appointed superintendent of the lines, held that post for 30 years, and is justly spoken of as the father of Japanese railways.
Of road open to traffic, the northern section being that between Tokyo and Yokohama, and the southern that between KiOto and Kobe.
Then for the first time a public works loan was floated in the home market, and about 300,000 of the total thus obtained passed into the hands of the railway bureau, which at once undertook the building of a road from KiOto to the shore of Lake Biwa, a work memorable as the first line built in Japan without foreign assistance.f During all this time private enterprise had remained wholly inactive in the matter of railways, and it became a matter of importance to rouse the people from this apathetic attitude.
Of this main road the state undertook to build the central section (376 m), between TOkyO and KObe (via Kioto); the Japan railway company undertook the portion (457 m.) northward of Tokyo to Aomori; the Sanyo railway company undertook - the portion (320 In.) southward of Tokyo to Shimonoseki; and the KiOshiO railway company undertook the lines in Kishi.
The first project was to carry the TOkyo-KiOto line through the interior of the island so as to secure it against enterprises on the part of a maritime enemy.
A fresh vitality was imparted by the transfer of the court from Kioto, and the town then received its present name Tokyo (eastern capital).