Between the Swan and North-West Cape the principal rivers are the Greenough, Murchison and Gascoyne; on the north-west coast, the Ashburton, Fortescue and De Grey; and in the Kimberley district, the Fitzroy, Panton, Prince Regent and the Ord.
A narrow Cambrian sea must have extended across central Australia from the Kimberley Goldfield in the north-west, through Tempe Downs and the Macdonnell chain in central Australia, to the South Australian highlands, central Victoria at Mansfield, and northern Tasmania.
To York'Sound in the Kimberley district for a distance of some 150 m.
The first important discovery was made in 1882, when gold was found in the Kimberley district; but it was not until a few years later that this rich and extensive area was developed.
It has been ascertained from recent explorations that the area of carboniferous formation in that state extends from the Irwin northwards to the Gascoyne river, about 300 m., and probably all the way to the Kimberley district.
The country passed through was mostly of a forbidding character, except where the Kimberley district was entered, and the expedition suffered even more than the usual hardships.
The establishment of the gold fields caused many people to move West.
The expedition encountered very many hardships, but successfully reached Hall Creek in the Kimberley district.
This expedition put an end to the hope, so long entertained, that it was possible to obtain a direct and practicable route for stock between Kimberley and Coolgardie gold-fields; and it also proved that, with the possible exception of small isolated patches, the desert traversed contained no auriferous country.
Here are, too, the chief railway workshops between Kimberley and Bulawayo.
Thence the railway is continued to Johannesburg, &c. The distances from Durban to the places mentioned by this route are: Johannesburg, 483 m.; Pretoria 511 m.; Kimberley, 793 m.; Bulawayo, 1508 m.; Delagoa Bay, 860 m.
Here the Amahlubi prospered, and after the diamond fields had been discovered many of the young men who had been to Kimberley brought back firearms. These Langalibalele refused to register, and entered into negotiations with several tribes with the object of organizing a general revolt.
But the trade over berg largely developed on the dis covery of the Kimberley diamond mines, and the progress of the country was greatly promoted by the substitution of the railway for the ox wagon as a means of transport.
Conglomerate beds occur in belts forming in descending order the Elsburg series, Kimberley series, Bird Reef series, Livingstone Reef series, Main Reef series.
Besides the Pretoria fields there are diamondiferous areas (alluvial diggings) in the Bloemhof district on the Vaal river north-east of Kimberley, and in other regions.
Cronje and the envelopment of Kimberley by Free State commandos under General Wessels.
The first duty was to effect the relief of the British forces which had been rendered immobile, and another duty imposed by political circumstances was to relieve Kimberley (where Cecil Rhodes was), while the prospect of rebellion forbade the complete denudation of the central part of the colony.
On the following day Lord Methuen delivered an attack upon Cronje's position between the Upper Modder river and the Kimberley road, a line of kopjes called Spytfontein and Magersfontein.
Pending the arrival of Lord Roberts and reinforcements, the situation in South Africa remained at a deadlock: the three besieged towns - Mafeking, Kimberley and Ladysmith - still held their own, but no headway was made by the relief columns; all they could do was to stand on the defensive.
The concentration effected, Cronje still believed that the relief of Kimberley was the object of the gathering behind Modder River, and therefore held on to his Magersfontein kopje.
The relief of Kimberley was indeed urgent, for dissensions between Rhodes and the military authorities had become acute.
Cronje sent only detachments to oppose them, but these detachments were broken through by a sword-in-hand charge of the whole division, and Kimberley was relieved on the r5th.
This was deflected by Kitchener westward to follow up the Boer rearguard, and after some delay the remainder of the infantry, at first fronting northwards, swerved westward likewise, while French from Kimberley, with such of his men as he could mount on serviceable horses, headed off Cronje in the north-west.
Rundle's division took the right of the advance; Methuen and Hunter moving from Kimberley, formed the left.
Large forces had been left behind during the advance on Johannesburg for the protection of the railway and the conquered terri tory, and these were now reinforced from Kimberley and elsewhere as well as from detachments of the main army.
(For details of gold-mining, see Gold.) A railway traverses the Rand, going westward past Krugersdorp to Klerksdorp and thence to Kimberley, and eastward past Springs to Delagoa Bay.
The north bank of the Orange, from the Kornet Spruit confluence to a point a little east of the spot where the railway from Cape Town to Kimberley crosses the river, forms the southern frontier of the province.
Of Kimberley; and Jacobsdal, 764.
Largely owing to its situation - being on the direct route between the Cape ports and the Transvaal, and between Durban and Kimberley - the province possesses an extensive network of railways.
Long) runs west to Kimberley, on the main line from Cape Town to Rhodesia, and from Springfontein a branch (56 m.
Of Kimberley, yield occasional diamonds of great purity.
Capital from Kimberley and London was soon provided with which to work them.
Of Kimberley, of which it is practically a suburb, though possessing a separate municipality.
The Griqualand West province of Cape Colony belongs also geographically to Bechuanaland, and except in the Kimberley diamond mines region is still largely inhabited by Bechuana.
Vryburg (pop., 1904, 2985), founded by Boer filibusters in 1882, and Taungs, are towns on the railway between Kimberley and Mafeking.
But towards the close of 1870 stones were found at Jagersfontein and at Dutoitspan, far from the Vaal river, and led to a second great rush of prospectors, especially to Dutoitspan, and in 1871 to what is now the Kimberley mine in the neighbourhood of the latter.
In the Kimberley district five of these round patches of blue ground were found within an area little more than 3 m.
In diameter; that at Kimberley occupying 10 acres, that at Dutoitspan 23 acres.
There were soon 50,000 workers on this field, the canvas camp was replaced by a town of brick and iron surrounded by the wooden huts of the natives, and Kimberley became an important centre.
- Kimberley Mine, 1902.
(From Photographs by C. Evans.) In a very few years, however, the open pit mining was rendered impossible by the mud rushes, by the falls of the masses of barren rock known as " reef," which were left standing in the mine, and by landslips from the sides, so that in 1883, when the pit had reached a depth of about 400 ft., mining in the Kimberley crater had become almost impossible.
By 1889, in the whole group of mines, Kimberley, Dutoitspan, De Beers and Bultfontein, open pit working was practically abandoned.
Meanwhile mining below the bottom of the pits by means of shalts and underground tunnels had been commenced; but the full development of modern methods dates from the year 1889 when Cecil Rhodes and Alfred Beit, who had already secured control of the De Beers mine, acquired also the control of the Kimberley mine, and shortly afterwards consolidated the entire group in the hands of the De Beers Company.
In place of all this, the visitor to Kimberley encounters at the edge of the town only a huge crater, silent and apparently deserted, with no visible sign of the great mining operations which are conducted nearly half a mile below the surface.
The aspect of the Kimberley pit in 1906 is shown in fig.
At the Kimberley mine.
Pipes similar to those which surround Kimberley have been found in other parts of S.
But by far the largest of all the pipes hitherto discovered is the Premier Section Or Kimberley Mine mine in the Transvaal, about 300 m.
In 1906 it was being worked as a shallow open mine; but the description of the Kimberley methods given above is applicable to the washing plant at that time being introduced into the Premier mine upona very large scale.
The stones, however, are good; since they differ somewhat from the Kimberley crystals it is probable that they were not derived from the present pipes.
A rock similar to the blue ground of Kimberley has been found in the states of Kentucky and New York.
The Kimberley shales, which are penetrated by the De Beers group of pipes, were, however, certainly not the source of the carbon at the Premier (Transvaal) mine, for at this locality the shales do not exist.
The Porter Rhodes from Kimberley, ` "of the finest water, weighed about 150 carats.
There were in 1911 only five towns with over 12,000 inhabitants, namely Cape Town (161,759), Kimberley (44,433), Port Elizabeth (37,063), East London (24,606) and Grahamstown (13,830).
An indication of the activity of the Anglican Church was the creation of two new dioceses, George (1911), and Kimberley and Kuruman (1912).
In the campaign of February 1900, Cronje opposed Lord Roberts's army on the Magersfontein battleground, but he was unable to prevent the relief of Kimberley; retreating westward, he was surrounded near Paardeberg, and, after a most obstinate resistance, was forced to surrender with the remnant of his army (Feb.
Of Kimberley by rail.
The discovery a few weeks later of the much richer mines at Bultfontein and Du Toits Pan, followed by the great finds at De Beers and Colesberg Kop (Kimberley) caused Jagersfontein to be neglected for several years.
Up to 1887 the claims in the mine were held by a large number of individuals, but coincident with the efforts to amalgamate the interest in the Kimberley mines a similar movement took place at Jagersfontein, and by 1893 all the claims became the property of one company, which has a working arras ement with the De Beers corporation.
The diamondiferous areas at Kimberley and in the Pretoria district are likewise the richest known.
The chief cities are Cape Town (pop. 1904, 77, 66 8), Port Elizabeth (32,959), East London (25,220) and Kimberley (34331) in the Cape province; Durban (67,847) in Natal; Johannesburg (155,642) and Pretoria (36,839) in the Transvaal; and Bloemfontein (33,883) in the Orange Free State.
The opening up of the diamond mines at Kimberley (1870) followed (1886) by the discovery of the Witwatersrand goldfields completely revolutionized the economic situation and profoundly modified the history of the country.
From the seaports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban, Lourenco Marques and Beira railway lines run to Kimberley, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg and Pretoria, while a trunk line extends north from Kimberley through Rhodesia (in which gold mining began on an extensive scale in 1898) and across the Zambezi below the Victoria Falls into the Congo basin, where it serves the Katanga mineral area.