Only in the Urals, the Caucasus, the Timan Mountains, the region of the Donets coalfield, and the Kielce Hills is there any sign of the great folding from which nearly the whole of the rest of Europe has suffered at one time or another.
In Poland the rocks of these periods are met with in the Kielce Mountains, and in Podolia in the deeper ravines.
Another short ridge, the Chccinski hills in Kielce, follows the same direction along the Nida river and reaches 1345 ft.
With the exception of the Lysa Gora hilly tracts (Kielce and south Radom), which lie within the isotherms of 41° and 42°, Poland is situated between the isotherms of 42° and 46°.
Southern Poland possesses abundant minerals, especially in the Kielce mountains and the region adjacent to Prussian Silesia.
The Devonian sandstones contain malachite ores near Kielce, and copper has been worked there since the 15th century, though the mines are now neglected.
The brown iron ores of Kielce contain no less than 40% of iron.
Kielce, Poland (Government) >>
One diocese (Podlasie) was abolished, and a new one established at Kielce, while several bishops were sent out of the country.