The last nerve which contributes to the ischiadic plexus leaves the spinal column in most birds either between the two primary sacral vertebrae, or just below the hindmost of them, and sends a branch to the pubic portion which is composed of post-ischiadic nerves, partly imbedded in the kidneys, and innervates the ventral muscles between the tail and pubis, together with those of the cloaca and copulatory organs.
Both present the appearance of diminutive clusters of grapes, at the anterior end of the kidneys, close to the suprarenal bodies, separated from each other by the descending aorta and by the vena cava where this is formed by the right and left vena iliaca communis.
The action of colchicum or colchicine upon the kidneys has been minutely studied, and it is asserted on the one hand that the urinary solids are much diminished and, on the other hand, that they are markedly increased, the specific gravity of the secretion being much raised.
It is not quite certain whether these are to be regarded as the remnant of an earlier excretory system, replaced among the Oligochaeta by the subsequently developed paired structures, or whether these "head kidneys" are the first pair of nephridia precociously developed.
F, Gill lamellae (not ctenidia, but organs of the pallial complex, having two kidneys, in some cases two branchiae, and two auricles.
PSOROSPERMIASIS, the medical term for a disease caused by the animal parasites known as psorosperms or gregarinidae, found in the liver, kidneys and ureters.
Kaiser has described as kidneys two organs something like minute shrubs situated dorsally to the generative ducts into which they open.
It has now been established that, provided the kidneys be healthy, natural salicylic acid, sodium salicylate prepared from the natural acid, and salicin, are not cardiac depressants.
Sodium salicylate escapes from the blood mainly by the kidneys, in the secretion of which sodium salicylate and salicyluric acid can be detected within fifteen minutes of its administration.
The rapid excretion by the kidneys is one of the cardinal conditions of safety, and also necessitates the very frequent administration of the drug.
Provided the kidneys be healthy, the symptoms may be ignored.
Kidneys, pancreas and the thyroid gland, also in muscle-plasma; " crystalline," a globulin occurring in two forms a and /3, is found in the lens of the eye; " egg-globulin " and " lactoglobulin " occur respectively in the white of egg and in milk.
In Rhynchonella, where there are two pairs of kidneys, the internal opening of the anterior pair is supported by the gastroparietal band and that of the posterior pair by the ileoparietal band.
The kidneys or nephridia open internally by wide funnel-shaped nephridiostomes and externally by small pores on each side of the mouth near the base of the arms. Each is short, gently curved and devoid of convolutions.
For the special pathological details of various diseases, see the separate articles on Parasitic Diseases; Neuro-Pathology; Digestive Organs; Respiratory System; Blood: Circulation; Metabolic Diseases; Fever; Bladder; Kidneys; Skin Diseases; EYE Diseases; Heart Disease; EAR, &c.; and the articles on different diseases and ailments under the headings of their common names.
The discovery by Richard Bright (1789-1858) of the disease of the kidneys known by his name proved to be one of the most momentous of the century.
Our knowledge of diseases of the kidneys has made no great advance since the time of Richard Bright.
In the sphere of physiology and in the interpretation of associated arterial diseases much obscurity still remains; as, for instance, concerning the nature of the toxic substances which produce those bilateral changes in the kidneys which we call Bright's disease, and bring about the "uraemia" which is characteristic of it.
Its bulk alone (equal to that of an orange) causes serious disturbances, and its choice of the liver, kidneys, lungs, cranial cavity and other deep-seated recesses, gives rise to profound alterations.
Occasionally the fluke migrates into the blood vessels and may reach the lungs, kidneys, urethra and bladder.
The quest of a solvent for calculus in the bladder and kidneys was pursued by him as by others at the period, and he devised a form of forceps which, on the testimony of John Ranby (1703-1773), sergeant-surgeon to George II., extracted stones with "great ease and readiness."
The materials are bound together by a tough white thread which is formed by a secretion of the kidneys of the male.
- a, Stephanoceros eichornii in gelatinous tube; b, Acyclus inquietus in gelatinous tube, with eggs; c, Floscularia coronetta in gelatinous tube, with eggs; d, A psilus bucinedax, showing lateral (distal) antennae funnel of mouth hanging into enormous crop, stomach at apical end with gastric glands, anus on postero-ventral surface, large coiled kidneys at proximal end, uniting into median duct; e, Melicerta ringens in tube; f, same, proximal end enlarged, showing a pellet in the cup proximal to the paired lateral antennae; g, Melicerta janus, tube formed of faecal pellets.
The parasites are frequently more numerous in the spleen, bone-marrow, kidneys, &c., than elsewhere, and it has been found that multiplication goes on rather more actively in the capillaries of these organs.
In addition to the characters given above, it may be noted that the mantle is provided with a hypobranchial gland on the outer side of each gill, the auricles are muscular, the kidneys are glandular through their whole length, the sexes are separate.
The gonads open into the kidneys and the right gonad extends into the mantle.
There is usually one pair of coelomic ducts leading from the pericardium to the exterior, and these are the excretory organs or kidneys, formerly known as the organs of Bojanus.
Among the Lamellibranchia again the kidneys serve as genital ducts in the Protobranchia and some Filibranchia.
Strychnine is eliminated by the kidneys as strychnine and strychnic acid.
There is much uncertainty as to the influence of atropine on the secretions of the stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas and kidneys, and it is not possible to make any definite statement, save that in all probability the activities of the nerves innervating the glandcells in these organs are reduced, though they are certainly not arrested, as in the other cases.
The kidneys are enlarged and congested.
It has been discovered in seaweed; in the blood of certain Cephalopoda and Ascidia as haemocyanin, a substance resembling the ferruginous haemoglobin, and of a species of Limulus; in straw, hay, eggs, cheese, meat, and other food-stuffs; in the liver and kidneys, and, in traces, in the blood of man and other animals (as an entirely adventitious constituent, however); it has also been shown by A.
Poisons formed by microbes are partly eliminated by the kidneys, partly by the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, and possibly also by the skin.
But it seems now probable that all glands which have what may be termed an external secretion like the pancreas, stomach, intestine, skin and kidneys have also an internal secretion, so that while they are pouring out one secretion from the ducts into the intestine or external air, they are also pouring into the lymphatics, and thus into the blood, an internal secretion.
It is probable that the kidneys also have an internal secretion, and that the great oedema sometimes found in kidney disease is rather due to the action of some proteid body resembling in its effects the streptococcus anti-toxin, than to accumulation of water due to imperfect action of the kidney.
Elimination of waste-products is one of the most important points in regard to health, and when this is interfered with by disease of the kidneys, the life of the patient is rendered more or less uncertain and the health frequently seriously impaired.
In some cases of chronic inflammation of the kidneys, where the disease is not extensive, the patient may continue in fair health for a number of years, provided attention be paid to the following rules: - (i) The body must be kept warm, and chills must be scrupulously avoided; (2) the digestion must be attended to carefully, so that no excess of poisonous bodies is formed in the intestine or absorbed from it; (3) eliminating channels such as the skin and bowel must be kept active.
In cultivation the potato varies very greatly not only as to the season of its growth but also as to productiveness, the vigour and luxuriance of its foliage, the presence or relative absence of hairs, the form of the leaves, the size and colour of the flowers, &c. The tubers vary greatly in size, form and colour; gardeners divide them into rounded forms and long forms or "kidneys," and there are of course varieties intermediate in form.
Brain and kidneys, it may now be stated as an accepted fact that all the important results of bacteria in the tissues are due to poisonous bodies or toxins formed by them.