The Kharijites who had opposed 'Ali on the ground that he had no right to allow the appeal to arbitration, were defeated at Nahrawan or Nahrwan (658), but those who escaped became fierce propagandists against the Koreish, some claiming that the caliph should be chosen by the Faithful from any tribe of the Arabs, some that there should be no caliph at all, that God alone was their ruler and that the government should be carried on by a council.
This has been essayed by Brunnow in his study on the Kharijites (aeiden, 1884), in which the narrative of Mubarrad in the Kamil is compared with the excerpts of Madaini given by Baladhuri and those of Abu Mikhnaf given by Tabari.
His son was besieged by Dahhak and his Kharijites and Saffarids in Nasibin; but a fierce battle at Mardin ended in Merwan's favour (745).
When the negotiations failed and war was resumed, the Kharijites refused to follow Ali's army, and he had to turn his armies in the first instance against them.
(3) The Kharijites, who, in spite of the heavy losses they sustained at the hands of Ali, maintained their power by gaining new adherents from among those austere Moslems, who held both Omayyads and Alids as usurpers, and have often been called, not unjustly, the Puritans of Islam.
A rising of Kharijites in the year 663 had ended in the death of their chief.
A number of the citizens of Medina had come to the aid of the Holy City, as well as many Kharijites from Yamama under Najda b.
The troops of Basra had been, since the death of Yazid, at war with the Kharijites, who had supported Ibn Zobair during the siege of Mecca, but had deserted him later.
Ibn Zobair, however, was occupied at Mecca with the rebuilding of the Ka`ba, and Mus`ab was harassed not only by the Kharijites, but also by a noble freebooter, Obaidallah b.
Al-Hanafiya, Mandi of the Shiites; and that of the Kharijites, who were at that time under the command of Najda b.
Mus`ab's best troops were fighting under Mohallab against the Kharijites; many Basrians were secretly favourable to the Omayyads, nor were the Kufian soldiers to be trusted.
Mohallab, who at the time of the battle of Bajomaira was in the field against the Azraqites (Kharijites), and had put himself at the disposal of the caliph, had orders to carry on the war.
But the two princes proved unequal to their task and did not support Mohallab sufficiently, so that the Kharijites gained more than one victory.
The troops of Kufa, who accompanied Mohallab in an expedition against the Kharijites, had abandoned their general and dispersed to their homes, and nothing could induce them to return to their duty.
Mohallab, reinforced by the army of Irak, at last succeeded, after a struggle of eighteen months, in subjugating the Kharijites and their caliph Qatara b.
Even to the Kharijites he contrived to give satisfaction, as far as possible.
The Kharijites, of whom a great many had emigrated 1 Cf.
Reinforced by many Kharijites out of the northern provinces, he marched against Kuf a.
He beat the Kharijites repeatedly and entered Kufa in May or June 747.
At his approach the Kharijites left their camp and fled to Abdallah b.
Ilanzala defeated his army; Ibn Moawiya fled to Khorasan, where he met his death; the chief of the Kharijites, Shaiban Yashkori went to eastern Arabia; Suleiman b.
By a bold attack, in the manner of the Kharijites of yore, Tahir penetrated into the centre of the hostile army and killed Ali.
The Kharijites in Mesopotamia, who for many years had molested the government, were finally crushed with the aid of their former ally IHamdan, who became the founder of the well-known dynasty of the IHamdanites.
It chanced, however - according to a legend, the details of which are quite uncertain - that three of the fanatic sect of the Kharijites had made an agreement to assassinate Ali, Moawiya and `Amr, as the authors of disastrous feuds among the faithful.